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Paterson 1993

Tibet = warm for 250 million years (glacial periods up to 15 million years ago)
- CO2 drops as plateau rises ='dynamic balance' (Berner, 1983)


Berner 1983

Dynamic balance between processes removing CO2 and restoring it
- CO2 dissolved in rainwater (carbonic acid), reacts with limestone and granite (calcium/silica) = deposited on sea floor and CO2 eventually released again
- Failed to predict timing of global thermostat turndown (40 and 15 million years ago)


Raymos and Ruddiman 1988

- Rising Tibetan plateau = more energy radiated by earth = cooling
- Uplift = air circulation brings water-laden air off Indian Ocean in summer and therefore monsoon in India
- CO2 dissolved in rain water
- However, according to theory there would be no CO2 left in the atmosphere


Coates 1980

Rise of Panama = series of volcanic eruptions that formed an archipelago SW of Central American Seaway
- Plate drifted north and east and archipelago entered seaway, partly closing the gap
- Closure changed ocean circulation patterns salinity could not mix therefore Atlantic saltier and Pacific more dilute = GULF STREAM (warm Atlantic currents flowed through gap and deflected north


Adams 2007

Climate vary
1. energy from sun = lines of latitude (angle of sun) = also explains seasons, mountains colder = lapse rate
2. circulation of atmosphere and oceans that carry heat between places (ITCZ = air rises convection)


McGuire et al 2002