Reading for midterm 2 Flashcards
What is food adulteration
lowering thequality of food by intentional or unintentional substitution of food with some inferior foreign particle or by removal of some value added food substitute from main food item.
Adulterated food is harmful because
a) it may be toxic andeffect health; (b) it could deprive nutrients required to maintainproper health, (c) it may cause intoxication or problems such asallergy in sensitized individuals
Types of adulterants and their subclasses
-Intentional:physical or biological
- Incidental : natural, non natural,
- metallic -> both intentional and unintentional
-Microbial : Bacterial, Fungi,parasiticus
What is intentional adulteration
e inclusion of inferior sub-stances having properties similar to the foods in which they are added.
Unintentional adulteration is
inclusion of unwanted sub-stances due to ignorance, carelessness or lack of proper facil-ities and hygiene during processing of food.
4 types of techniques to detect adulterant
What is used as physical methods of adulterant determination
Analyzing the physical parameters like morphology, texture, solubility, bulk density
Structural analysis with macroscopic and microscopic visual structural evaluation
Weakness of physical methods
4 big groups in chemical/biochemical techniques
Why chromatography based, spectroscopy based, immunology based, and electrophoresis based analysis are limited in real life?
Cost and need of specialists trained
Steps in basic analytical approach of adulterants testing
(a) extraction with a suit-able solvent;
(b) cleanup for removal of interfering matrix components; (c) chromatographic separation and; (d) selective detection.
Gas chromotography is used for
separating volatile organic compounds
Disadvantage and advantage of infrared spectroscopy
helps in rapid detection of adulterants in raw mate-rial but is unable to identify the contaminant. N
NMR possibility of detection adulterants
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) not only detects an adulterant but also provides structural identification of the contaminant.
What is GS- MS
A combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic technique
Electrophoresis technique is used for
detection of food frauds, for instance electrophoretic analysis had potential to detect and quantify additional whey in milk and dairy beverages
Advantages of ELISA and what is it
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
high sensitivity, easy to use, reliable, low cost and fast application over other techniques (
DNA-based techniques are based on what procedure
Discrimination of adulterants from original food item can easily be done by molecular markers if both adulterant and the original food show physical resemblance, difference in DNA/RNA
Two approaches in PCR testing
One is DNA barcoding, which is based on the analysis of a short genetic marker called the“DNA barcode”in an organism’s DNA.
The second method is based on the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that give rise to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)