Red Blood Cells, Anemia and Polycythemia Flashcards Preview

Physiology Test 2 content > Red Blood Cells, Anemia and Polycythemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Red Blood Cells, Anemia and Polycythemia Deck (44):
1

What is the volume of blood in the average adult?

~5.5 L

2

RBC do not have what important organelles?

-Nucleus
-Mitochondria

3

Hematocrit

%RBC/Volume

4

Normal Hematocrit in Males

40-50%

5

Normal Hematocrit in Females

36-47%

6

Organs that produce RBC in adults

Bone Marrow

7

Organs that produce RBC in the fetus

Yolk, PAS/AGM, Liver, Blood, Thymus bone marrow

8

Life span of the RBC

120 Days

9

Life span of the RBC in sickle cell anemia

10-15 days

10

Name of the primary stem cell for blood components

Pluripotent Hematopoietic Stem cell (PHSC)

11

Name the two important progenitor cells PHSC divides into

-Common Myeloid Progenitor
-Common Lymphoid Progenitor

12

What is the first recognizable cell in the genesis of RBC

Proerythrocyte

13

What is the name of immature RBCs?

Reticulocyte
-retain residual RNA/Mitochondria

14

How long does it take a reticulocyte to mature into a mature RBC?

2 days

15

When are elevated counts of reticulocytes found in the blood?

In patients who's condition requires accelerated RBC production (bleeding)

16

Erythropoetin

Hormonal control of RBC production

17

What organs release EPO and to what stimuli?

Kidneys, and to hypoxia.

-Kidneys sense decreased oxygen levels and release erythropoetin that act on the progenitor cells in bone marrow to increase production of RBC

18

Steps in Hemoglobin formation (Busy Card)

1. Succinyl Coa + 2 Glycine --> 4 Pyrrole
2. 4 Pyrrole --> Protoporphyrin IX (Key step)
3. Protoporphyrin IX + Fe2+ --> Heme
4. Heme + Polypeptide--> Hemoglobin Chain (alpha, beta)
5. 2 Alpha + 2 Beta Chains --> Hemoglobin A

19

Fetal Hemoglobin (Hgb F)

Alpha2, Gama2

20

Hemoglobin A

Alpha2, beta2

21

Why is Iron important in the RBC?

It is important for Hgb to carry oxygen

22

Ferritin

Where iron is stored in the tissues
-primarily liver and spleen

23

Transferrin

Where Fe is bound in the blood

24

Hemosiderin

Pathological form of iron storage. The iron is not readily available.

25

What is the most important consequence of Anemia?

not transferring enough oxygen

26

Causes of anemia

1-blood loss
2-increased RBC destruction (hemolysis)
3-Decreased production (malnutrition)

27

In acute bleeding, H/H stay normal until?

Plasma volume is restored

28

Each mL of blood loss is associated with what measurable loss in iron?

0.5mg

29

Anemias associated with increased destruction of RBCs

-Membrane defects
-abnormal hemoglobin (SCD)
-Immune hemolysis
-mechanical injury (burns, prosthetic valves)
-normoblasts being destroyed (thalessemia)

30

Ongoing hemolysis will result in what 3 things?

-Increased total body iron
-jaundice and bilirubin gallstones
-expansion of marrow space, increased reticulocyte count

31

What percent of iron is stored in hemoglobin?

65%

32

Anemias associated with decreased production of RBCs

1. Lack of Iron, Folate, B12
2. Low levels of EPO, thyroid hormones, androgens
-renal disease
3. Nought enough heme rings on globin chains
4. Bone marrow dysfunction
5. Infiltrative disease of bone marrow

33

What nutritional deficiencies can lead to anemia?

Iron, B12, Folate

34

What population is Iron deficiency anemia most commonly seen?

-Women of child bearing age as a manifestation of hemorrhage
-4-8% of premenopausal women
-GI neoplasm with GI bleeds- may remain undetected for a while

35

Dietary lifestyles leading to iron deficiency anemia

1- vegetarians
2-Old people
3- Picca

36

Pernicious anemia

-Vit. B12

37

Sources of dietary Vit. B 12

Meat/Dairy

38

Causes of pernicious anemia

-Vegan lifestyle (70% of vegans B12 deficient)
-GI malabsorption (chronic atrophic gastritis)

39

Most common symptom of Vit. B12 deficiency

loss of proprioception
- will also see paresthesia and eventually dementia
-Due to demylenation of posterior columns of the spinal cord

40

Anemia in the elderly

-While common is still ABNORMAL
-do not have a lower normal range
-increased risk for mortality

41

Polycythemia

Too many RBCs
-Factor intrinsic to RBC precursors
-Functional hypoxia

42

Hematocrit greater than what % can be life threatening and why?

60% due to the increased blood viscosity

43

Polycythemic patients should be monitored for what condition?

Thrombus formation
-Should be on VTE prophylaxis

44

Increased reticulocytes in the presence of normal CBC is indicative of what RBC disorder?

Polycythemia Vera