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Flashcards in Regional Anesthesia Deck (21)
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1

What 3 types of blocks are considered to be central blocks?

spinal, epidural, and caudal blocks

2

What is the site of action for central blocks?

the nerve root within the spinal cord

3

Where are the local anesthetics injected for a spinal block?

into the CSF

4

Where are the local anesthetics injected for an epidural block?

into the epidural space (at any level of the spinal column)

5

How many cervical vertebrae are there?

7

6

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?

12

7

How many lumbar vertebrae are there?

5

8

How many sacral vertebrae are there?

5 (fused)

9

What are 4 absolute contraindications to regional anesthesia?

- patient refusal

- sepsis or infection at injection site

- coagulopathy or anticoagulation

- elevated ICP or cerebral edema

10

What are a few relative contraindications to regional anesthesia?

- patient appropriateness

- local infection near injection site

- hypovolemia

- CNS disease

- chronic back pain or prior laminectomy

- prior SAB with difficulty

11

The spinal cord extends from the ______ ______ to ____.

foramen magnum to L1

12

The spinal canal extends from the ______ ______ to the ______ ______.

foramen magnum to the sacral hiatus

13

What part of the spinal cord continues past L1?

the cauda equina

14

How many pairs of spinal nerves carry motor and sensory information?

31 pairs

cervical (8), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacral (5), and coccygeal (1)

15

The dorsal root carries what type of nerve signals?

afferent

(signals heading into the spinal cord and brain)

16

The ventral root carries what types of nerve signals?

efferent

(signals heading into the periphery)

17

The sympathetic nerves originate where?

the thoracic and lumbar spine

18

The parasympathetic nerves originate where?

the cranial nerves and the sacral spine

19

Spinal anesthesia interrupts ______, ______, and _______ nervous system innervation.

sensory, motor, and sympathetic

20

If T6 is the target sensory blockade level, then usually two dermatomes up (T4) would be the ______ blockade level, and usually two dermatomes down (T8) would be the _____ blockade level.

T4 - sympathetic

T6 - sensory

T8 - motor

21

What two anatomic landmarks assist in identifying the location of L4?

spinous processes and the iliac crests