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Flashcards in Relationships Deck (57):

What are the 5 aspects of sexual selection?

Parental investment
Sexual selection
Intersexual selection
Intrasexual selection


What is parental investment?

The amount that the female and male invest in their offspring
Evolutionary psychology argues that there's an imbalance between what the mum and dad invest in their kids


What is sexual selection?

Explains why some characteristics might appear disadvantageous actually cause an advantage in human reproductive behaviour because the characteristics are attractive to potential mates


What is intrasexual selection?

The males have to compete with other males for the opportunities to mate with the females.
The winner of the competition reproduces and gets to pass on this to his offspring the characteristics that contributed to his victory


What is anisogamy ?

Differences between male and female sex cells
The sex which invests the most in producing offspring becomes a limiting resource over which the other sex will compete


What is intersexual selection?

Women are choosy - they devise a set of criteria to establish which mate would boost her reproductive success the most


Evaluate evolutionary explanation for relationships

Ignores social and culture influences
Gender bias


What is self disclosure?

Most people are careful about what they disclose. If disclosure is used wisely and effectively then it really can help the course of love to run smoother


What is the social penetration theory?

When one person reveals some personal information about themselves, this indicated and displays trust towards the other person.
The other partner must also reveal sensitive information
As each partner increasingly reveals more and more information about one another, romantic partners "penetrate" more deep into each other's lives


What are the levels of self disclosure ?

1) superficial
2) intimate
3) personal
4) core


What does breadth and depth of self disclosure mean?

As depth and breadth increases, commitment increases
Low risk information is revealed early on
High risk information comes as relationship progresses
If we reveal too much too soon, relationship will possibly be threatened


What is reciprocity of self disclosure ?

For a relationship to develop, as well as increase the breadth and depth, there needs to a reciprocal element to disclosure


Evaluate self disclosure

Practical applications - improve communication
Cultural differences


What is the Halo effect ?

Pre conceived ideas about the personality traits attractive people must have, almost universally positive
Attractive people - rated kind, strong, sociable and successful


What is the similar attractiveness hypothesis ?

Ideally, we want a perfect partner. As this is not possible we compromise. Become matched to somebody who keeps at matches what we want


Evaluate physical attractiveness explanation

Individual differences
Cultural influences
Ignores the role of the 3rd party


What is the filter theory?

The first filter revolves around the fact that we only meet a fraction of people living in our area- proximity filter
Most of those we meet tend to be of a similar social class, ethnicity group - similarity filter
The third filter is based on psychological factors - internal filter


Evaluate filter theory

Festinger et al
Kerkoff and Davis


Evaluate factor affecting attractiveness

Reductionism - ignores biological factors
Individual differences - ignores the influence of early childhood experience
Theory outdated - gender roles have changed
Determinism - unconscious decisions


What does the social exchange theory involve?

Operant conditioning
Rewards and costs
Comparison level
Comparison level for alternatives
4 stages of relationship


What is the idea of profit and costs ?

Partners are always trying to maximise their profit and minimise their cost


What does satisfaction depend on?

It depends on the outcome - the balance between rewards and costs


What is the comparison level?

We develop a standard of which we compare all our relationships against
It is formed based on all our experiences plus our view of what we might exchange
If we judge the potential profit of a new relationship to exceed our comparison level then the relationship will be judged as worthwhile


What is the comparison level for alternatives ?

Where we weigh up a potential increase in rewards from a potential partner


What are the 4 stages of a relationship?



What is sampling stage?

Rewards and costs are assessed in a number of relationships


What is bargaining stage?

Sources of profit and loss are identified


What Is the commitment stage?

Maintained by a predictable exchange of rewards


What is the institutionalisation stage?

Interactions are established and the couple settle down


What is the equity theory?

Walter states that what matters most with equity is that both partners level of profit are seen to be roughly the same


What are the consequences of inequity?

The greater the perceived inequity, the greater the dissatisfaction


Evaluate equity theory

Compare with SET
Advance relationship counselling - practical applications
Not everyone is concerned about achieving equity


What is the investment model for relationships ?

Satisfaction ---- commitment ---- future
Alternatives ---- Level. ---- stay or
Investment ---- ---- leave


What is the investment size?

Considered how much had put into a relationship
Intrinsic investments - put into a relationship
Extrinsic investments - connected to the relationship


What does the investment model argue is the most important factor?

The main factor that causes people to stay in a relationship is NOT satisfaction but commitment


Evaluate investment model

Based on correlation
Practical application


What are the 4 phases of the duck phase model?

Intrapsychic phase
Dyadic phase
Social phase
Grave dressing phase


What is the intrapsychic phase of the ducks phase model?

Threshold - "I can't stand this anymore"
Behaviours - considers cost of withdrawal


What is the dyadic phase of the ducks phase model?

Threshold - "I'd be justified in withdrawing"
Behaviours - confront partner
Attempt to repair relationship


What is the social phase of the ducks phase model?

Threshold - "I mean it"
Behaviours - speak to social group


What is the grave dressing phase in the ducks phase model ?

Threshold "it's now inevitable"
Behaviours - publicly distribute own version of break up story


Evaluate ducks phase model

Doesn't explain why relationship got to this point
Culture bias - based on western cultures experience
Incomplete model - added 5th phase the resurrection process , address problems of the old relationship


What are the aspects of virtual relationships ?

Reduced cues theory
Hyper personal model
Absence of gating


What is the reduced cues theory?

This theory suggests that computed mediated communication relationships are harder to establish as people are more likely to be aggressive due to the lack of non verbal cues which can lead to deindividuation.


What is the hyperpersonal model?

This theory suggests that computer mediated communication relationships are easier to establish as people are more likely to disclose earlier on, ensuring that they are found to be attractive


What does absence of gating mean?

Face to face interaction is said to be gated because it involves many features that can interfere with the early development of a relationship
Absence of gating - concerns people are free to create online identities that they could never manage in FTF


Evaluation of virtual relationships

Practical applications - dating websites
Use studies


What are parasocial relationships ?

One sided relationships, where one person extends emotional energy and the other party is completely unaware of the others existence


What are the levels of parasocial relationships?

Level 1 - entertainment social sub scale
Level 2 - intense personal sub scale
Level 3- borderline pathological sub scale


What happens in entertainment social sub scale?

Discussion with friends about the celebrity


What happens in the intense personal sub scale?

Feels connection with the celebrity


What happens in the borderline pathological sub scale?

Uncontrollable behaviours and obsessive fantasies about personality


What is absorption in the absorption addiction model?

Behaviour designed to make the person feel closer to the celebrity e.g. Researching facts


What is addiction in the absorption addiction model?

Escalation of behaviour to sustain and strengthen the relationship e.g. Start to believe they need the celebrity


What is the attachment theory of parasocial relationships?

Thought that those who can be needed and clingy in relationship may be more likely to develop parasocial relationships
Insecure resistant - most likely to form them
Insecure avoidant - least likely
Secure - not likely


Evaluate attachment theory

Cultural influences
Practical applications


Evaluate absorption addiction model

Lacks explanatory power