Flashcards in Relationships Deck (57):
What are the 5 aspects of sexual selection?
What is parental investment?
The amount that the female and male invest in their offspring
Evolutionary psychology argues that there's an imbalance between what the mum and dad invest in their kids
What is sexual selection?
Explains why some characteristics might appear disadvantageous actually cause an advantage in human reproductive behaviour because the characteristics are attractive to potential mates
What is intrasexual selection?
The males have to compete with other males for the opportunities to mate with the females.
The winner of the competition reproduces and gets to pass on this to his offspring the characteristics that contributed to his victory
What is anisogamy ?
Differences between male and female sex cells
The sex which invests the most in producing offspring becomes a limiting resource over which the other sex will compete
What is intersexual selection?
Women are choosy - they devise a set of criteria to establish which mate would boost her reproductive success the most
Evaluate evolutionary explanation for relationships
Ignores social and culture influences
What is self disclosure?
Most people are careful about what they disclose. If disclosure is used wisely and effectively then it really can help the course of love to run smoother
What is the social penetration theory?
When one person reveals some personal information about themselves, this indicated and displays trust towards the other person.
The other partner must also reveal sensitive information
As each partner increasingly reveals more and more information about one another, romantic partners "penetrate" more deep into each other's lives
What are the levels of self disclosure ?
What does breadth and depth of self disclosure mean?
As depth and breadth increases, commitment increases
Low risk information is revealed early on
High risk information comes as relationship progresses
If we reveal too much too soon, relationship will possibly be threatened
What is reciprocity of self disclosure ?
For a relationship to develop, as well as increase the breadth and depth, there needs to a reciprocal element to disclosure
Evaluate self disclosure
Practical applications - improve communication
What is the Halo effect ?
Pre conceived ideas about the personality traits attractive people must have, almost universally positive
Attractive people - rated kind, strong, sociable and successful
What is the similar attractiveness hypothesis ?
Ideally, we want a perfect partner. As this is not possible we compromise. Become matched to somebody who keeps at matches what we want
Evaluate physical attractiveness explanation
Ignores the role of the 3rd party
What is the filter theory?
The first filter revolves around the fact that we only meet a fraction of people living in our area- proximity filter
Most of those we meet tend to be of a similar social class, ethnicity group - similarity filter
The third filter is based on psychological factors - internal filter
Evaluate filter theory
Festinger et al
Kerkoff and Davis
Evaluate factor affecting attractiveness
Reductionism - ignores biological factors
Individual differences - ignores the influence of early childhood experience
Theory outdated - gender roles have changed
Determinism - unconscious decisions
What does the social exchange theory involve?
Rewards and costs
Comparison level for alternatives
4 stages of relationship
What is the idea of profit and costs ?
Partners are always trying to maximise their profit and minimise their cost
What does satisfaction depend on?
It depends on the outcome - the balance between rewards and costs
What is the comparison level?
We develop a standard of which we compare all our relationships against
It is formed based on all our experiences plus our view of what we might exchange
If we judge the potential profit of a new relationship to exceed our comparison level then the relationship will be judged as worthwhile
What is the comparison level for alternatives ?
Where we weigh up a potential increase in rewards from a potential partner
What are the 4 stages of a relationship?
What is sampling stage?
Rewards and costs are assessed in a number of relationships
What is bargaining stage?
Sources of profit and loss are identified
What Is the commitment stage?
Maintained by a predictable exchange of rewards
What is the institutionalisation stage?
Interactions are established and the couple settle down
What is the equity theory?
Walter states that what matters most with equity is that both partners level of profit are seen to be roughly the same
What are the consequences of inequity?
The greater the perceived inequity, the greater the dissatisfaction
Evaluate equity theory
Compare with SET
Advance relationship counselling - practical applications
Not everyone is concerned about achieving equity
What is the investment model for relationships ?
Satisfaction ---- commitment ---- future
Alternatives ---- Level. ---- stay or
Investment ---- ---- leave
What is the investment size?
Considered how much had put into a relationship
Intrinsic investments - put into a relationship
Extrinsic investments - connected to the relationship
What does the investment model argue is the most important factor?
The main factor that causes people to stay in a relationship is NOT satisfaction but commitment
Evaluate investment model
Based on correlation
What are the 4 phases of the duck phase model?
Grave dressing phase
What is the intrapsychic phase of the ducks phase model?
Threshold - "I can't stand this anymore"
Behaviours - considers cost of withdrawal
What is the dyadic phase of the ducks phase model?
Threshold - "I'd be justified in withdrawing"
Behaviours - confront partner
Attempt to repair relationship
What is the social phase of the ducks phase model?
Threshold - "I mean it"
Behaviours - speak to social group
What is the grave dressing phase in the ducks phase model ?
Threshold "it's now inevitable"
Behaviours - publicly distribute own version of break up story
Evaluate ducks phase model
Doesn't explain why relationship got to this point
Culture bias - based on western cultures experience
Incomplete model - added 5th phase the resurrection process , address problems of the old relationship
What are the aspects of virtual relationships ?
Reduced cues theory
Hyper personal model
Absence of gating
What is the reduced cues theory?
This theory suggests that computed mediated communication relationships are harder to establish as people are more likely to be aggressive due to the lack of non verbal cues which can lead to deindividuation.
What is the hyperpersonal model?
This theory suggests that computer mediated communication relationships are easier to establish as people are more likely to disclose earlier on, ensuring that they are found to be attractive
What does absence of gating mean?
Face to face interaction is said to be gated because it involves many features that can interfere with the early development of a relationship
Absence of gating - concerns people are free to create online identities that they could never manage in FTF
Evaluation of virtual relationships
Practical applications - dating websites
What are parasocial relationships ?
One sided relationships, where one person extends emotional energy and the other party is completely unaware of the others existence
What are the levels of parasocial relationships?
Level 1 - entertainment social sub scale
Level 2 - intense personal sub scale
Level 3- borderline pathological sub scale
What happens in entertainment social sub scale?
Discussion with friends about the celebrity
What happens in the intense personal sub scale?
Feels connection with the celebrity
What happens in the borderline pathological sub scale?
Uncontrollable behaviours and obsessive fantasies about personality
What is absorption in the absorption addiction model?
Behaviour designed to make the person feel closer to the celebrity e.g. Researching facts
What is addiction in the absorption addiction model?
Escalation of behaviour to sustain and strengthen the relationship e.g. Start to believe they need the celebrity
What is the attachment theory of parasocial relationships?
Thought that those who can be needed and clingy in relationship may be more likely to develop parasocial relationships
Insecure resistant - most likely to form them
Insecure avoidant - least likely
Secure - not likely
Evaluate attachment theory