Religion and Belief Systems in Australia Post-1945 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Religion and Belief Systems in Australia Post-1945 Deck (134)
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1

Dreaming definition:

The dreaming underpins all beliefs and practices. It outlines all relationships and responsibilities for aboriginal peoples.

2

What are the three aspects that inform the dreaming?

Ceremonial life
obligations to land and people
kinship

3

Outline how kinship informs aboriginal spirituality:

A highly sophisticated network of relationships. Creates a connection with land, ASB and the dreaming. It outlines belonging and responsibility within the tribe and between clans. “The completeness to the oneness” - Bob Randall. e.g. Land is part of kinship group “my mother”

4

Outline how ceremonial life informs aboriginal spirituality:

It is the ritual and artistic expression of the dreaming. It ensures that vital components of aboriginal law and dreaming stay intact. All ceremonies acknowledge a metaphysical presence of the dreaming world in the real world.
e.g. Initiation denotes transition from childhood to adulthood

5

Outline how obligations to land and people inform aboriginal spirituality:

Inextricably connected to land and spirituality. Land is the physical medium in which the dreaming takes place. Land is the meeting point where tribes derive identity and relationships. Rituals are connected to sacred sites called balance rites.
e.g. Resting place for ASB

6

Dreaming cant be taught statement

The dreaming can't be taught, it is something that is felt and experienced by being in one's country and being surrounded by one's skin. They are steadfastly connected

7

What was the continuing effect of dispossession on aboriginal spirituality in relation to?

separation of land, separation of kinship groups and stolen generations

8

Describe the continuing effects as a result of the separation from the land:

Loss of land = loss of spirituality and they are no longer able to fulfil ritual responsibilities( loss of purpose) e.g. smoking ceremony.
It is an ONGOING effect of dispossession on traditional spirituality
Complete destruction of all elements of spirituality; totemic responsibilities, relationships, connections, kinship and ceremonial life e.g. severed link of knowledge of their “country”
E.g. Elders are obliged to walk the land each year, to perform balance rites where needed and pay respect to the ASB. This cant be fulfilled if they are dispossessed from the land.

The land is the medium in which the dreaming is expressed and lived, resulted in loss od identity.

9

When were missions established in Australia?

1820’s-1850’s: Gov and church established missions and reserves in which they were forced to assimilate into European culture and lifestyle

10

When was Terra nullius declared?

In 1788 terra Nullius was declared which resulted in no recognition of Aboriginal land ownership and marked the start of the removal of tribes from dreaming stories/totems

11

Describe the continuing effects as a result of the separation from kinship groups:

Removal from land destroyed kinship groups alongside thousands of years of traditional custom and culture e.g. ASB
1838 policy of protection deliberately attempted to destroy spirituality, kinship, culture, language etc.
1901 policy of assimilation was detrimental to the all-encompassing nature of aboriginal spirituality

They lost their practical expression of their religion such as songs and dances
Loss of info made it difficult to participate in native title claims
They undermined parenting which contributed to a loss of connection

12

What was the policy of protection?

1838 policy of protection deliberately attempted to destroy spirituality, kinship, culture, language etc.

13

What was the policy of assimilation?

1901 policy of assimilation was detrimental to the all-encompassing nature of aboriginal spirituality

14

Describe the continuing effects as a result of the stolen generations:

100,000+ children were forcibly removed in a deliberate attempt to remove their aboriginal identity
The bringing home report revealed the shattering loss of:
Heritage, Culture, Language, Land and community
It made recommendations such as a national sorry day should be held but this did not occur till 2008

Aboriginal people make up 2.7% of the Australia population according to the 2016 census. This census revealed the ongoing devastating effects of dispossession such as:
Life expectancy= 20 years lower
Make up 20% of those unemployed
9% of homeless
Higher mental health issues and substance abuse
Resulted in a systematic cycle of oppression and poverty

15

Outline some ongoing effects that occurred as a result of dispossession:

Aboriginal people make up 2.7% of the Australia population according to the 2016 census. This census revealed the ongoing devastating effects of dispossession such as:
Life expectancy= 20 years lower
Make up 20% of those unemployed
9% of homeless
Higher mental health issues and substance abuse
Resulted in a systematic cycle of oppression and poverty

16

Define the land rights movement:

a religious-political movement to secure the rights of aboriginal people to their land and ensure their religious, spiritual and cultural integrity is preserved (connection to the dreaming).

17

Why are land rights important?

Land rights are of critical importance in relation to aboriginal spirituality as the dreaming is inextricably linked with the land

Control over the land is a means of regaining control of their lives and spirituality

Land Rights claims by ATSI people to repossession & compensation for White use of their land & sacred sites

18

Mabo Case

An indigenous man from the Torrest Strait islands, he had a large role in indigenous rights in overturning of Terra Nullius.
He sent a precedent and raised awareness and support for indigenous rights

19

When was the Mabo case?

1991

20

When was the native title act?

1993

21

What did the Mabo decision do?

1991 high court: Merian people continued to have a traditional right to possess and live on most lands of Mer ( rejected Terra Nullius)

22

What was the native title amendment act?

1998: The native title amendment act: (10 point plan) gave the right to negotiate for government-owned land and was a set back for native title
- it gave priority to pastoralist rights and they only had a right to be consulted

23

What was the 10 point plan?

1998: The native title amendment act: (10 point plan) gave the right to negotiate for government-owned land and was a set back for native title

24

What was the Wik decision?

the high court made the decision that native title coexists with pastoral leases, however, the pastoralists rights prevail

25

When was the Wik decision?

1996

26

Analyse the importance of dreaming for the land rights movement:

The dreaming defined the connection between the aboriginal people and the land. Without the land, the dreaming could not be communicated.
Thus the land lies at the heart of aboriginal spirituality.
The identity is inextricably linked to the land.

27

What is census data?

Census data records the population’s religious affiliations and allows us to draw conclusions about how religion is changing in Australia (It is optional on the census)

28

What religions have experienced religious growth?

Islam: 2011 (2.2%) - 2016 (2.6%) It is the biggest religion outside of Christianity. The rise has occurred due to immigration.
Hinduism: 2011 (1.3%) - 2016 (1.9%) Huge growth, fastest growing
Seekhism: 2011 (0.3%) - 2016 (0.5%) Intense upward growth

29

Outline Islams changing patterns:

Islam: 2011 (2.2%) - 2016 (2.6%) It is the biggest religion outside of Christianity. The rise has occurred due to immigration.

30

Outline Hinduisms' changing patterns:

Hinduism: 2011 (1.3%) - 2016 (1.9%) Huge growth, fastest growing

31

Outline Seekism's changing patterns:

Seekhism: 2011 (0.3%) - 2016 (0.5%) Intense upward growth

32

What religions have experienced religious decline?

Judaism: 2011 (0.5%) - 2016 (0.4%). Numbers have stayed consistent since mass migration after ww2- constant with population growth
Buddhism: 2011 (2.5%) - 2016 (2.4%). Massive growth from 1972-2011 through immigration, numbers have now levelled out
Christianity: 2011 (61.1%) - 2016 (52.4%). Biggest group but is on the decline
Anglicanism: huge decline
Presbyterian: significant, not huge
Uniting Church: more substantial loss
Eastern orthodox: small drop
Catholic: decreased in the percentage of the population but they have increased numerically

33

Outline Judaism's changing patterns:

Judaism: 2011 (0.5%) - 2016 (0.4%). Numbers have stayed consistent since mass migration after ww2- constant with population growth

34

Outline Buddhism's changing patterns:

Buddhism: 2011 (2.5%) - 2016 (2.4%). Massive growth from 1972-2011 through immigration, numbers have now levelled out

35

Outline Christianity changing patterns:

Christianity: 2011 (61.1%) - 2016 (52.4%). Biggest group but is on the decline

36

Outline Anglicanism's changing patterns:

Anglicanism: huge decline

37

Outline Presbyterian's changing patterns:

Presbyterian: significant, not huge

38

Outline Uniting Church changing patterns:

Uniting Church: more substantial loss

39

Outline Eastern orthodox changing patterns:

Eastern orthodox: small drop

40

Outline Catholic changing patterns:

Catholic: decreased in the percentage of the population but they have increased numerically

41

What was seen from the 2016 census data?

A huge rise in no-religion

42

No-Religion Census

2011 (22.3%) - 2016 (30.1%)
Intense growth due to the decline of traditional religions and more non-religious schools of thought e.g. meditation

43

What was the white Australian Policy?

Immigration restriction act/ white Australian policy (1901-1970’s). The aim was to limit non-white immigration ti Australia particularly Asian immigration and thereby preserves the predominance of the British within Aus. The policy reflected the ideal homogenised society.

44

What does religion in Australia look like today?

Religion in Australia is now more diverse, revitalised and differently located

45

How and when did the uniting church form?

Methodist Church combined with the Congregational Union of Australia, and the Presbyterian Church of Australia in 1977 to form the uniting church

46

What is the major religious tradition in Australia?

Christianity

47

Why is Christianity the major religious tradition in Australia?

Mainly due to British immigration, massive change since 1945 with diverse denominations

48

How was Christianity brought to Australia?

Assisted migration from Britain brought Christianity to Aust.

49

Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to:

Christianity as the major religious tradition, immigration, denominational switching, rise of new age religions and secularism

50

Immigration directly after ww2

1945: numbers were too few, govt. Agreed to take war refugees, affected Christian denominations

51

Immigration 1945-60

1945-1960: approximately 30,000 Jews arrived from Europe, joining an established community here
1960’s: saw drastic moves to restrict racial diversity

52

When was the white Australian policy abandoned?

1973

53

1975 immigration

1975: planned Asian immigration brought multiculturalism and eastern religions to Aust. This escalated after the Vietnam War, 120,000 refugees from Indochina

54

1980's immigration

1980’s: increase in the total Muslim population in Aust. ( this is ongoing)

55

What is denominational switching?

When people move from one denomination of Christianity to another

56

Where does the evidence for denominational switching come from?

Evidence comes from National Church Survey

57

Pentecostals and denominational switching

Pentecostals: young people more committed to the congregation rather than a denomination. Pentecostals benefit the most from this in 5 years attendance has grown 16%

58

Traditional churches and denomination switching

Traditional churches losing numbers to other denominations: Lutheran, Uniting, Presbyterian and Anglican

59

Why has there been a rise in new age religions?

Alternative spiritualities aiming to foster personal happiness, health and meaning in life
Traditional religions are increasingly failing to resonate with modern people

60

Why has there been a rise in new age religions? specific example

E.g. Christianity with its negativity towards body, sexuality and women

61

Examples of new age religions

meditation, astrology, Scientology

62

When did the rise in new age religions occur?

It has been growing since the 1970s

63

What is secularism?

The principle that sees that religion should not interfere with or be integrated into the public affairs of society

64

What does secularism promote?
e.g.

Promotes the idea that society would be better off without forced religion
Allows pluralism. Individualism, materialism, scepticism and increasing disillusionment with tradition religion
e.g. “No religion”

65

Define ecumenism:

the movement for dialogue and mutual understanding between Christian churches

66

Why is ecumenism important?

Religious dialogue in multifaith Australia

The single community of faith, stresses the common values and teachings that exist across the many churches and denominations making up the Christian world

67

Why is ecumenism a challenge

Ecumenism is a challenge to the Christian churches to build bridges of understanding while recognising and preserving the individual person's belief

68

Re shift and ecumenism:

One obvious effect of the re. shift since 1945 has been in collaboration across traditions, with the sectarianism of the path, favouring dialogue on social issues

69

NCCA

Consists of 19 member churches across Aust. including Anglican, Catholic and Uniting. In order to apply the message of unity Christ willed.
The works for social justice are able to have a huge impact on the Aust. religious landscape
Seeks to voice common concerns to the Govt. on issues that directly affect Christian life. As well as create solutions and reduce differences between member churches throughout the world.
Objectives:
Develop existing relationships
Social Justice
Promote relationships
e.g. Social Justice: hold Christmas bowl appeal to send aid and assistance to 22 countries

70

NSWEC

16 churches from NSW and ACT,
Aims to maintain the unity of the spirit and share a commitment to the gospel
Believe ecumenism is a positive expression of the commitment to seek communication
Strong social justice emphasis
Local and international initiatives
e.g. house of welcome: support and facilitates for asylum seekers without work rights or social security

71

Effect of ecumenism:

Restricted as not everyone's involved e.g. pentecostal denominations
Allowed awareness and respect in society
Cooperation for mission
Greater efficiency

72

What is interfaith dialogue?

Positive communication and cooperation between different religious traditions as they all share a common worldview
The process of interfaith dialogue involves the concept of coming together to discuss matters of societal and faith concern with each other

73

What does interfaith dialogue do?

Different traditions find common ground to create dialogue. This dialogue depends on mutual understanding.
It expresses commonalities which bind the religious worldviews e.g. peace and justice

74

Why is interfaith dialogue important?

Dialogue helps avoid conflict due to a difference in belief and promotes harmony and peace between the religious traditions. Respecting the diversity of beliefs in the process
Due to increased ethnic and religious diversity, it is extremely important.
Development: Post-1945 expansion due to cultural diversity from immigration. Promotes understanding and communication

75

Australian Council of Christians and Jews:

Aims to create dialogue and mutual understanding
Runs programs e.g. education of Christian teachers on how to deal with Anti-Semitism in the New Testament
Positive outcome: decrease in racism, religious intolerance and supremacy

76

When was the Australian Council of Christians and Jews: founded?

1991

77

When was the NCCA founded?

1994

78

When was the NSWEC founded?

1982

79

Columban Centre for Christian-Muslim Relations:

Aims to break down negative comments and stereotypes about Islam
Engages to promote the Catholic church teachings through interfaith dialogue
Religious harmony positive in face of secularisation
Programs such as adult education

80

2007 Victorian Bushfire Memorial Service:

Involved many religions from Australia: aboriginal elder, catholic archbishop, Anglican archbishop and Islamic Rabbi
Presented interfaith as a means of universal comfort and reflection in the face of the tragedy at a national level

81

Examples of interfaith dialogue;

2007 Victorian Bushfire Memorial Service, Columban Centre for Christian-Muslim Relations and the Australian Council for Christian and Jews

82

Examples of ecumenism:

NCCA and NSWEC

83

Are there limitations of interfaith dialogue movements?

Despite the progress of interfaith movements, occasional resistance to other religions is still a reality of religiously diverse societies.

84

What is reconciliation?

Reconciliation- a long and difficult process requiring the recognition of past wrongdoings involved in the destruction of aboriginal spiritualities

85

NATSIEC reconciliation

Works for acknowledgement of all Christian churches of their role in aboriginal dispossession and acts to promote reconciliation through programs
Promotes indigenous rights
Runs programs designed to empower indigenous women

86

Examples of reconciliation

NATSIEC, Pope John Paul ll: 2001 and Buddhist peace fellowship:

87

Pope John Paul ll: 2001

Apologised for the role of Christian missions in the stolen generation
Urged government to implement basic health, employment and educational facilities
Marks huge progress

88

Buddhist peace fellowship:

The land and the cross and the lotus was a public performance by representatives of Buddhist, aboriginal and Christian religions with a strong emphasis on building social harmony and social support
They run many programmes especially focused on social welfare and education e.g. Alcoholic anonymous for aboriginal Australians

89

reconciliation set backs

Ongoing processes of reconciliation still face serious barriers such as ABS stats showing life expectancy to be 2o years below average of Indigenous Australians.

90

What is the religion and non-religion topic about?

The way religion and non-religion school of thought functions in human history

91

What is the religious dimension?

how humans have explored the forces or powers that could explain why the world is the way it is

92

What is the religious expression?

the way people show a belief in the powers of forces in the religious dimension

93

What do animism, polytheism and monotheism share?

a belief in a spiritual dimension and have a relationship with this

94

What is animism?

The belief that all-natural objects including people, animals and the wider environment possess a soul and are animate
Because everything has a soul, all-natural things should be treated with respect
The souls, or spirits, of each natural object, control the day-to-day activities of the natural world e.g. the way the trees sway in the breeze

95

Animism examples

Shintoism: Kamis inhabit the natural World
Aboriginal Spirituality

96

What is Polytheism?

Belief in the existence of a God or Gods
Many polytheistic religions believe that different gods or goddesses have control of specific aspects of the universe
Gods or deities resemble humans in the sense that they have their own personalities, interact and hold grudges against other Gods

97

Polytheism example:

Hinduism- have 330 million deities

98

What is monotheism?

One God who is omnipresent, omniscient and omnipotent
Created the universe and gave humans morals

99

Monotheism examples

E.g. Semitic religions: God revealed itself gave humans the universe, revealed in sacred texts (Christianity, Judaism and Islam)

100

-Evaluate the place of the religious dimension in human history to provide:

meaning and purpose for the individual, social cohesion and social transformation

101

Meaning + Purpose

Origins, Purpose + destiny
Provides answers to the big questions
Origins + Purpose: religion provides life with meaning by answering the big religious questions
Origins + Destiny: Religion gives life structure and consistency
Origins- sacred texts outline creation story
Purpose- each religion celebrates important stages e.g. Bar Mitzvah
Creates cultural identity and sense of belonging
Destiny- act morally, obey God e.g. Akhira

102

Meaning + Purpose examples

Bar Mitzvah and Akhira

103

Social Cohesion:

The way society works together and forms communities
Religion provides people with a sense of community because it ties life to something more stable and constant e.g. laws “Do not commit murder", dress codes, architecture (churches) and public holidays
Provides a common purpose
Between religions and sects, there are differences which can result in disharmony e.g. Sunni and Shia

104

Social Cohesion examples

Laws "DO not commit murder and Sunni and Shia's

105

Social Transformation:

Change while maintaining traditional views
Religion can transform society: stability, security, rituals, tradition, constancy
Religion can influence the rate of progress in society

106

What does social transformation help with?

Social justice and education

107

social transformation social justice

Poverty (Caritas)
Environmental destruction (Islamic plan for climate change)
Natural disasters (Jewish Coalition for Disaster Relief)
Conflict (John XXIII’s Pacem in Terris)

108

social transformation education

Religion can prevent progress science vs religion
Religion is supportive of new technologies (IVF)
Willing to correct their understanding (HIV/AIDS)
Religion has acted as a means for change by helping the less fortunate.
Religion has prevented change by maintaining traditional views

e.g. tikkun olam

109

Order of largest to smallest of the 5 biggest religious traditions:

Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism

110

Christianity global distribution percentage

31%

111

Christianity global distribution top 4 countries

USA, Brazil, Mexico and China

112

Christianity global distribution population

2.2 Billion people

113

Christianity global distribution dominant religion

Ireland, Canada, Poland, Philippines, USA, Brazil, Germany, South Africa

114

Christianity global distribution facts

declining in the western world
The Philippines had the largest population

115

Islam global distribution percentage

23%

116

Islam global distribution top 4 countries

Indonesia, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh

117

Islam global distribution population

1.6 billion people

118

Islam global distribution dominant religion

Indonesia, Pakistan, Malaysia, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Bangladesh, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Dubai

119

Islam global distribution facts

One of the fastest-growing religions in the world
Majority of the world Muslims live in the Asia Pacific region (outside of the middle east)

120

Hinduism Global distribution population

900 million people

121

Hinduism Global distribution percentage

15%

122

Hinduism Global distribution top 4 countries

India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka

123

Hinduism Global distribution dominant religion

India, Nepal, Bangladesh

124

Hinduism Global distribution facts

Mostly stayed within India
Fastest growing in Australia

125

Buddhism Global Distribution population

488 million people

126

Buddhism Global Distribution percentage

6%

127

Buddhism Global Distribution top 4 countries

China, Thailand, Japan and Myanmar

128

Buddhism Global Distribution dominant religion

Thailand, Japan, Tibet, Sri Lanka, Burma/Myanmar

129

Buddhism Global Distribution facts

Majority of the world Buddhists live in the Asia Pacific region

130

Judaism Global Distribution population

14.9 million people

131

Judaism Global Distribution percentage

0.22%

132

Judaism Global Distribution top 4 countries

USA, Israel, France and Canada

133

Judaism Global Distribution facts

After WW2 Israel was handed back to them by the United Nations

134

Global Distribution facts

In China none of the majority of the population practices one of the five major religions
In India order of largest religion: Hinduism, Islam and Christianity