Renal Flashcards Preview

Neonatal Pathophysiology > Renal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Deck (197)
Loading flashcards...
1

When does nephrogenesis begin?

early in the 4th week as 3 sets of kidneys

2

When does the final set of kidneys develop and become functional?

develop in 5th week and functional around 9th week

3

What is the major component of amniotic fluid after 18-20 weeks?

urine; this is when AFI becomes crucial

4

When is nephrogenesis complete?

at 34-36 weeks

5

What is the effect of prematurity on post-natal nephrogensesis?

not accelerated and may be blunted; may be all the nephrons you get (at birth)

6

What are the primary functions of the renal system?

1) maintenance of body homeostasis
2) endocrine regulation

7

What hormones does the renal system control?

- erythropoietin
- calcitriol
- renin

8

What is erythropoietin?

hypoxia-sensing cells that stimulate bone marrow to make more RBCs

9

What is calcitriol?

active form of vitamin D that works together with parathyroid hormone to maintain Ca++ balance

10

What is renin?

controls the volume of blood and therefore BP

11

How does the renal system maintain systemic homeostasis?

- disposes of nitrogenous wastes
- controls composition of blood

12

In what way do the kidneys control the composition of blood?

- regulates electrolyte homeostasis
- regulates acid-base balance

13

What is pyelectasis (or pelviectasis)?

mild dilation of the renal pelvis; measures 4-10mm in 2nd trimester; 97% will spontaneously resolve

14

What is hydronephrosis?

an exaggeration of pelviectasis; dilation >10mm; seen in 1-4% of all pregnancies; M>F

15

Why is it important to f/u a suspected hydronephrosis?

etiology is typically an obstruction

16

The term kidney typically has how many nephrons?

~ 1 million (300k- 2million)

17

A nephron consists of what two portions?

glomerulus & renal tubule

18

What are the two different types of nephrons?

cortical nephron & juxtaglomerular nephron

19

What is a cortical nephron?

the glomerulus and tubular system in the outer cortex

20

What is a juxtaglomerular nephron?

the tubular system that penetrates into the medulla

21

How does blood ENTER the glomerular tuft?

A-fferent arteriole

22

How does blood EXIT the glomerular tuft?

E-fferent arteriole

23

How many capillaries does the glomerular tuft have?

~ 50 tiny capillaries

24

What do the slit-like pores in the arterioles of the glomerulus permit?

allow passage of H20 and small solutes and restrict larger molecules, like proteins and red blood cells, from transferring into the bowman's capsule

25

Which arteriole is more dilated in the glomerulus?

the A-fferent; this allows more blood to enter the capsule than is leaving generating a higher hydrostatic pressure facilitating diffusion

26

What is GFR?

the amount of filtrate that flows out of all renal nephrons of both kidneys in 1 minute

27

How does the GFR of a FT infant at birth compare to an adult?

term GFR 30-50% of adult; nephrogenesis is complete by 32 weeks, but maturity takes awhile

28

How does the GFR of a PT infant (28 wks) at birth compare to a FT infant?

1/2 of term functioning

29

Describe the progression of GFR maturation in the FT infant postnatally.

- determined by renal vascular resistance (very high in the fetus and falls after birth)
- doubles in 1st 2 weeks
- reaches adult value by 2 years of age

30

What are the physiologic processes that occur in the tubular system?

selective reabsorption or secretion of varoius substances in different portions of tubular system (through both active and passive transport mechanisms)