Flashcards in Renal disease Deck (10):
what are the functions of the kidney?
excretion of end products of metabolism - urea and creatinine and removal of foreign chemicals
regulation of electrolyte balance, acid base balance, body water volume and osmolality balance
what are the 3 layers of the glomerular capsule membrane?
endothelium, basement membrane and epithelium
what is the function of the 3 layers of the glomerular capsule membrane?
act as a barrier to the filtration of large molecules such as proteins
what is glomerular filtration rate?
the amount of filtrate formed per minute
what is filtrate?
how does filtration occur?
blood colloid pressure
glomerular hydrostatic pressure
what is reabsorption?
second step in urine formation
takes place by passive and active transport mechanism from all parts of the renal tubule
major portion of water, electrolytes and normally all nutrients are reabsorbed from the PCT in the loop of Henle
what are other responsibilities of the kidneys?
blood pressure control (renin production)
activation of vitamin D
outline the changes to the renal system in pregnancy
plasma volume increases by 40-50%
cardiac output increases by 30%
reduced vascular resistance, altered BP regulation
renal blood flor increases by 80%
50% increase in filtering capacity (Glomerular filtration rate) by 18weeks until 36weeks then steady return to pre pregnant state
kidneys increase in length by 1cm
dilation of renal pelvis and ureter on right side
increase in urinary protein excretion up to 0.3g/24hrs
increased risk of UTI from urinary stasis.
increase in non diabetic glycosuria due to increase in filtered load and inability to reabsorb back through the tubules at the same rate
change in acid base balance
increase in erythropoietin production 40% to increase red cell mass§