Renal Histology Flashcards Preview

Kathleen's Renal I > Renal Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Histology Deck (57):
1

What is the functional significance of the cortex? What is in the cortex?

Outer part of the kidney, between capsule and medulla
Where ultrafiltration occurs
Epo is produced here

Includes:
renal corpuscles
convoluted tubules
straight tubules of the nephron
collecting tubules
collecting ducts

2

What is the functional significance of the cortical/renal columns?

Medullary extension of the cortex in between renal pyramids
- allows for better anchoring of the cortex

3

What is the functional significance of the medullary rays?

Contain the straight tubules of the nephron and collecting ducts.
-look like vertical striations that emanate from medulla

4

What is the functional significance of the medulla?

Contains:
straight tubules of nephrons - form pyramids
collecting ducts
vasa recta

5

What is the functional significance of the renal lobe?

Lobe contains a whole medullary pyramid and half of each adjacent renal column

6

What is the functional significance of the renal papillae?

Papilla = apical portion of each medullary pyramid

Perforated (cribrosa) projection into minor calyx of renal pelvis, allows for passage of filtrate

7

What is the functional significance of the renal pelvis?

Collecting duct for urine

Exits kidney via hilum

8

What is the functional significance of the renal lobule?

Made up of the collecting duct for a group of nephrons that drain into duct

Lobule: central medullary ray and surrounding cortical material (only found in cortex)

9

What 2 general parts make up a nephron?

Renal corpuscle
Tubule system

10

What is the function of the renal corpuscle?

Initial blood filtering component of a nephron

Contains:
glomerulus
Bowman's capsule

11

What cells make up the renal corpuscle?

Squamous cells - from parietal epithelium
endothelial cells - from capillaries
mesangial cells and matrix
squamous cells of visceral epithelium - AKA podocytes

12

What is a Bowman's capsule?

Beginning of a nephron

A sac-like covering for the capillary glomerulus - collects fluid from blood going through glomerulus

13

What are the cellular parts of the structure of a Bowman's capsule?

Double walled epithelial structure

Uriniferous tubule - leads away from glomerulus/capillary tuft

Parietal epithelium - squamous outer wall

Visceral epithelium - covers glomerulus, has podocytes

Bowman's space - urinary space between parietal and visceral layers, receives glomerular filtrate

14

What is the glomerulus?

'Tuft' of capillaries that indents into Bowman's capsule

15

What are the 2 poles of the glomerulus?

Vascular pole
- where vessels enter and leave capsule
- afferent arteriole enters and splits off into capillaries
- capillaries recombine to make efferent arteriole

Urinary pole - where ultrafiltrate exits corpuscle

16

In a general sense, what are the 3 filtration components found in the nephron?

Endothelium of glomerular capillaries
Glomerular basement membrane
Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule

17

What 4 features of the glomerular capillary endothelium contribute to it's filtration capacity?

1. Numerous fenestrations
2. Large numbers of aquaporins
3. Secreted NO and prostaglandins
4. Glycocalyx that adds negative charge to the filtration apparatus

18

What makes up the glomerular basement membrane?

Type IV collagen mostly
- also additional adhesive molecules - laminin, nidogen, entactin, proteoglycans, multiadhesive glycoproteins

19

What part of the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule helps with glomerular filtration?

Podocytes - AKA visceral epithelials

These cells extend processes around the glomerular capillaries and develop numerous secondary processes called pedicels (foot processes)

Foot processes interdigitate and create filtration slits (40 nm wide), which are covered by an ultrathin filtration slit diaphragm

20

What are the three layers of the glomerular basement membrane?

Lamina rara externa
Lamina rara interna
Lamina densa

21

What features of glomerular basement membrane allow it to filter blood?

Lamina rara externa
- rich in polyanions - heparin sulfate - that impede passage of negatively charged molecules

Lamina densa
- type IV collagen makes a physical barrier
- type XVIII collagen, perlecan, & agrin are responsible for most of anion charges in GBM

Anions allow for a charged 'net' or boundary that won't allow negatively charged blood proteins to pass
- Cellular components of blood too large, platelets too negative

22

How does diabetic nephropathy reduce the filtering capacity of the GBM?

Greatly reduces number of anionic sites

23

What 4 things do mesangial cells do?

1. Phagocytosis and endocytosis
- Remove trapped residues and proteins from the GBM and filtration slit diaphragm; endocytose immune complexes

2. Structural support for podocytes

3. Secretion of molecules in response to glomerular injury

4. Modulation of glomerular distension

24

What makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Macula densa
Juxtaglomerular cells
Extraglomerular mesangial cells

25

What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus do?

Regulates the body’s salt and water balance by monitoring Na+ levels (distal tubule), blood pressure (afferent arteriole)

Renin is released when levels are low

26

Where is the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Adjacent to afferent/efferent arterioles at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle

27

What is the function of the macula densa?

Monitor Na+ concentration in tubular fluid

When Na+ is low, these cells stimulate renin release from JG cells and contraction of afferent arteriolar smooth muscle

28

Where is the macula densa located?

In the distal tubule, adjacent to afferent arteriole

29

What are the juxtaglomerular cells made out of? What is an important endocrine function that they do?

Modified smooth muscle cells of afferent arteriole

Secrete the protease renin

30

What do the extraglomerular mesangial cells do?

Fusiform/flat cells provide support

AKA cells of lacis or polkisson

31

What is the function of the proximal convoluted tubule?

Initial and major site of reabsorption

Reabsorbs ~65% of glomerular filtrate (water, salt, amino acids, glucose, proteins

32

What cells make up the proximal convoluted tubule? What are some histological features?

Cuboidal cells with:
Brush border with many microvilli

Tight junctions between neighboring cells

Plicae (folds) on lateral surfaces

Basal striations, consisting of elongate mitochondria concentrated in the basal processes and oriented vertically

33

Why do proximal convoluted tubule cells have so much mitochondia?

Run Na/K-ATPase pumps

34

Where are the proximal straight tubules formed?

Found in the cortex and medullary rays

AKA thick descending limb of the loop of Henle

35

What is the morphology of the proximal straight tubules like?

Morphology is similar to PCT cells, but the cells are shorter with less microvilli, and fewer basal infoldings with mitochondria

36

Where is the loop of Henle found?

In the medulla

37

What does the loop of Henle do?

Establishes a hypertonic medullary interstitium

38

List the different portions of the loop of Henle in relation to Na and water retention.

Thin descending limb is highly permeable to water, and less permeable to solutes

Thin ascending limb is highly permeable to NaCl and impermeable to water

Thick ascending limb produces an 85 kDa protein called uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein) that influences NaCl reabsorption and urinary concentration ability

39

Where is the distal straight tubule?

Continuous with the thick ascending limb of the LOH

40

What are the filtering characteristics of the distal straight tubule?

Impermeable to water; transports ions from tubular lumen into interstitium

41

What is the cell type of the distal straight tubule?

Cuboidal epithelium with basolateral interdigitations
Round, smooth lumen; apically-placed nuclei; numerous basal mitochondria; paler staining than PCT in H&E stain

42

Where is the distal convoluted tubule found?

Found only in the cortex
Returns to renal corpuscle of origin

43

What is the cell type of the distal convoluted tubule?

Simple cuboidal epithelium, round/smooth lumen, paler staining than PCT, numerous mitochondria

44

What is the impact of aldosterone on the distal convoluted tubule?

Reabsorbs Na+ (secretes K+)
reabsorbs bicarbonate (secretes H+)

secretes ammonia

45

What do the collecting tubules do?

Receives urine from several nephrons

46

Where do the collecting ducts run?

Duct runs in center of medullary ray towards medulla

Receives urine from several nephrons

47

What is the epithelium of the collecting ducts like?

Composed of simple epithelium with a flattened (squamous-cuboidal) shape

48

What is the epithelium of the medullary collecting ducts like?

Simple epithelium: cuboidal cells with a transition to columnar cells as the ducts increase in size

49

What is the function of the medullary collecting ducts?

Site of final concentration of urine
H2O is lost to increasingly hypertonic medullary interstitium
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) makes duct more permeable to H2O

50

How do the medullary collecting ducts change as they merge into ductal cells?

Medullary portion (renal papilla region)

Ductal cells become tall cuboidal to columnar

These combine to form large papillary ducts
AKA ducts of Bellini
The ducts open at the area cribrosa of papilla

51

What are the 2 cell types of the collecting ducts and tubules?

Principal cells
Intercalated cells

52

What are some characteristics of principal cells?

Pale-staining cells; possess a single primary cilium and relatively few short microvilli; small, spherical mitochondria; have an abundance of ADH-regulated water channels (aquaporin-2)

53

What are some characteristics of intercalated cells?

Considerably fewer in number; many mitochondria; dense cytoplasm with numerous vesicles present
α-intercalated cells secrete H+
β-intercalated cells secrete HCO3-

54

What is the renal interstitium?

Interstitial tissue that surrounds the nephrons, ducts, and blood and lymphatic vessels

Present in greater amounts in medulla (20% volume) compared to cortex (7% volume)

55

What is a special consideration for the segmental arteries that supply the kidney?

They're functional end arteries, with no collateral blood supply. If compromised, the kidney they feed is SOL.

56

What are the vasa recta? Where are they located and what do they drain to?

Arterioles/capillaries that run in the renal columns of the medulla

Located in juxtamedullary region

Descend into medulla and parallel loops of Henle

Loop and return to corticomedullary boundary

Bypass interlobular veins, drain into arcuate veins arcuate veins drain to segmental veins

57

Where are the peritubular capillaries located? What do they drain to?

Located in the outer cortex
- drain into interlobular veins, that drain into arcuate veins