Renal Outflow Disease Flashcards Preview

Renal Medicine > Renal Outflow Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal Outflow Disease Deck (16)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the different types of urinary tract diseases

Urinary tract infection
Urinary tract obstruction - renal stones, tumours and prostatic hypertrophy
Urinary tract malignancy

2

How can urine samples indicate a urinary tract disease

Sterile - detecting any bacteria implies infection
Skin contamination possible
White cells in urine
Blood in urine (microscopic only)
Collect MID-stream urine sample (MSSU)

3

Describe the causes of urinary tract infections

Common in women than men
Usually E.coli (85%)
Staph, fungi, virus and TB also possible
Cystitis is bladder inflammation
Predisposing factors - poor bladder emptying and low urinary flow rates

4

What are the symptoms of UTIs

Dysuria
Urinary frequency
Cloudy urine
Offensive smelling urine
Supra-pubic pain

5

What can infected urine cause

Cystitis
Renal infection
Prostate infection
Urethritis can occur in isolation - gonococcal

6

What are the treatments for UTIs

Diagnosis - MSSU only, microscopy, culture and sensitivity
Increase fluid intake
Frequent micturation
Occasionally antibiotics required - trimethoprim, amoxicillin

7

What are common causes of urinary tract obstruction

Renal calculi
Prostatic disease -hypertrophy or malignancy
Urinary tract strictures
External compression

8

Give examples of prostate disease

Prostatitis- inflammation of the prostate
Benign prostatic hypertrophy - hyperplasia of the prostate
Prostatic cancer - adenocarcinoma

9

Who is more likely to get benign prostatic hypertrophy

Almost a normal thing
80% of men over age 80 have BPH
100% if they live long enough

10

What are the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy

Symptoms of urine outflow obstruction
Slow stream
Hesitancy
Frequency
Urgency
Nocturnal
Incomplete voiding

11

How is benign prostatic hypertrophy treated

Initially drug based - a-blocking drugs, anti Cholinergic, diuretics
Surgery - prostatectomy
TURP - transurethral prostatectomy
Robot-assisted prostatectomy (RALP)
Open prostatectomy

12

Who is most likely to have a prostatic malignancy

Starts after age 45
90% of men >90 years have this at autopsy
Most asymptomatic - not cause of death
10% of men have symptomatic disease
2nd commonest male cancer in the USA
89% 5 year survival
63% 10 year survival

13

Describe prostate cancer screening

PSA blood test not always diagnostic
Prostatic specific antigens
Useful for monitoring disease activity in those known to have the disease
mpMRI - now recommended for early detection of prostate cancer

14

What are the treatments for prostatic malignancy

Surgery - radical prostatectomy
Radiotherapy
Hormone treatment - anti-androgens and LHRH analogues, block hormone dependant tumour growth

15

What is a common side effect of prostatic malignancy

Widespread bone metastasis - osteosclerosis

16

Describe renal calculi

Different stone types - calcium and oral ate (radiopaque), uric acid (not radiopaque)
5% in the population develop calculi in the kidney or bladder
Extremely painful when passing
Treat with lithotripsy