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Flashcards in Renal System Deck (41):
1

Renal Functions: regulation of osmolality

what is normal osmolality and range

300 mOsm/kg

270-310 mOsm/kg

2

the concentration of what contributes to 90%of the extracellular fluid osmolality?

sodium salts

3

osmolality is another way of saying what?

sodium concentration

4

name the 3 endocrine fxns of the kidney

Erythropoietin production

Renin productin

Vitamin D conversion into Vit D3

5

blood is delivered to the glomerulus via the ______ arteriole and exits the glomerulus via the ______ arteriol

delivered Afferent

Exits Efferent

6

there are 2 types of nephrons: what are they

cortical nephrons

juxtamedullary nephron

7

picture of 2 types of nephron

 

A image thumb
8

the cortical nephron has short loops of henle and glomeruli located where?

near the surface of the kidney

9

the juxtamedullary nephrons have LONG loop of henle and the glomeruli is where

deep in the cortex near the the cortical medullary junction

10

again picture of 2 nephrons

 

A image thumb
11

blood passes through the ______ arterioles, the _____ capillaries, the _______ arterioles, and the _______ capillaries before it drains into the venous system

Afferent arteriols

glomerular capillaries

Efferent arteriole

peritubular capillaries

12

the ______ arteriole branches into a caillary network that entwines the renal tubule

Efferent

13

the ______ capillaries are the capillaries that arise from the efferent arteriole and engulf the renal tubule

peritubular capillaries

14

the ____ _____ are the peritubular cappillaries of the loops of henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons, it constitutes a countercurrent echange system

Vasa recta

A image thumb
15

a substance may be transported FROM the tubule TO the capillary called what

 

reabsorption

 

16

a substance may be transported FROM the tubule TO the capillary called reabsorption or FROM the capillary TO the tubule called what?

secretion

17

the vasa recta are hairpin-shaped capillaries of the long loops of henle of what nephron

juxtamedullary nephrons

18

2 parts or divisons of the kidney>

cortex

Medulla

19

Glomeruli, proximal tubules, and distal tubules are found in what part of the kidney

cortex

20

the loops of henle and collecting ducts are found in what part of the kidneys

medulla

21

what part of the outter medulla is most vulnerable to ischemia? 

inner stripe

A image thumb
22

the LOH is a COUNTERCURRENT MULTIPLIER which does what?

creats the osmotic gradient

23

the vasa recta is a COUNTERCURRENT EXCHANGER what does that mean

it maintains the osmotic gradient created by the LOH

24

the LOH deposits NaCl in the medullary interstitium and in doing so, produces a gradient in osmolality that increases progressively from 300 to 1200 deep in the medulla. this osmotic gradient is required for what?

making the urine concentrated or making the urine dilute 

25

AVP/ADH:

synthesized where?

hypothalamus (paraventricular and supraoptic nuleus)

26

AVP/ADH:

stored where?

Post pituitary

(neurohypophysis)

27

AVP/ADH:

secreted into what?

blood

28

AVP/ADH:

what is the stimulus for release

increased Na+

Increased osmolality

29

AVP/ADH:

site of action

collecting ducts

30

AVP (ADH) is synthesized where in the hypothalamus?

paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus

31

AVP/ADH is transported in the axoplasmic fluid of the hypothalmic-hypophyseal nerves to storage sites in the nerve terminals where

neurohypophysis

32

what stimulate the release of AVP/ADH from the posterior pituitary

nerve action potentials

33

when circulating levels of AVP/ADH are HIGH, what type of urine is formed

a small volume of concentrated (0.5mL/kg/kr)

34

when circulating levels of AVP/ADH are LOW what is the urine like

large volumes of dilute urine

(25 mL/kg/hr)

35

what is urine osmolality with HIGH AVP/ADH

1200-1500 mOsm

36

what is urine osmolality if AVP/ADH is low

50-100 mOsm

37

what are causes of DI? (2)

failure of AVP/ADH synthesis or release (most common)

Insensitivity of distal tubules and collecting ducts AVP/ADH (nephrogenic)

38

what are causes of SIADH

result of surgery 

intracranial tumor

hypothyroidism

porphyria

Small OATS cell carcinoma

39

what are the diagnostic signs of SIADH

 

increased urine Na+ concentration

Increased Urine osmolality

hyponatremia

decreased PLASMA osmolality

(too much ADH pissing out Na+)

40

Spironolactone is a competitive aldosterone antagonist that works on the late DCT and the collecting decut (mainly collecting duct). it increases excretion of what? and promotes retention of what?

increases Na+ excretion 

and promotes K+ retention

41

Chronic Kidney disease:

what is the best test to determine renal reserve

creatinine clearance (measures GFR)