Flashcards in Renal - UTI, Pyelonephritis, GN, Calculi, Incontinence, Failure Deck (169)
What is a lower UTI?
A urinary tract infection.
What are the two most common infections in the body?
Upper respiratory infections and then UTI's.
What causes UTIs?
A varitey of bacteria, usually E. Coli
How would you describe the path of infection of a UTI?
Urine is ____ unless there is an infection?
Why are UTI's so common in women?
Women have a lot of normal flora in the vagina. When flora migrate into the urethra it causes an infection.
How is the inside of the bladder protected from direct contact or urine?
The mucin layer, which is a glycoprotein secretion lining the inside of the bladder which prevents direct contact of urine and epithial tissue.
What are the body's defences against UTIs?
Local immune response, Mucin layer, Washout, Prostatic fluid (men), Periuretheral flora (women).
What is washout, and how does it protect from UTIs?
Washout is daily urine output. Typically, urine stream should be forceful enough in an healthy individual to "washout" bacteria and flora that should not be there.
What are some risks that increase the likelyhood of developing a UTI?
What trick do bacteria have at their disposal to ensure proliferation on a catheterized individual?
Bacteria are able to secret a biofilm which ensure they can attach themselves to the catheter.
What are two examples of obstruction?
Urine statis, Reflux.
What are the manifestations of UTIs?
Acute onset, Frequency (need to urinate often), Dysuria (painful urination d/t inflammed tissue), Lower abdominal/back pain.
How are UTIs diagnosed?
What will the urinalysis look for? What drugs would be given? Would they ever change?
The urinalysis will look for signs of infection, leukocytes, erythrocytes, maybe the specific bacteria. The urinalysis will be cultured if bacteria is found, but Antibiotics would be given right away. The Abx may change if they are found to be ineffective to the bacteria that is found.
What is treatment for UTIs?
Abx, Tx the underlying cause.
What is Pyelonephritis?
Pyelonephritis is an upper urinary tract infection. It is an inflammation of the renal pelvis and parenchyma. There are both acute and chronic forms of pyelonephritis.
What is the etiology and risk factors associated with pyelonephritis?
Pyelonephritis is cause my various bacteria, usually E. Coli. The risks of pyelonephritis are increased by suppressed immunity, catherterization, urinary reflux, and diabetes.
What is the Pathophysiology of Pyelonephritis?
Pyelonephritis is an ascending infection and inflammation which progesses from the urethra - bladder - ureter - kidney. Once the infection has reached the kidney the inflammation causes tissue damage through fibrosis and scar tissue causing a decrease in renal function.
What are the characteristics of chronic Pyelonephritis?
Recurrent inflammation leading to obstruction or reflux. Renal damage leading to renal failure.
What are the manifestations of pyelonephritis?
Acute onset, Lower back pain, Fever, Dysuria, Frequency, Urgency, Pyuria, Severe HTN.
What manifestation is seen only in chronic pyelonephritis?
Why is HTN a manifestation of chronic pyelonephritis?
Due to blocking passages, the body is not excreting fluid for the body experiences hypervolemia and as a result increased blood volume. This results in hypertension.
What is the treatment for pyelonephritis?
Antibiotics, typically for 10 - 14 days.
What are the five categories of Glomerular disease?
1. Nephrotic Syndromes. 2. Nephritic Syndromes. 3. Sediment disorders. 4. Rapidly professive glomerulonephritis. 5. Chronic glomerulonephritis.
What is Glomerulonephritis (GN)?
It is a type 3 hypersensitivity denoted by glomerular inflammation. There are several types.
What is the common form of Glomerulonephritis that we covered in class?
Acute Postinfectious (Proliferative) Glomerulonephritis.
What is Glomerulonephritis preceeded by? When does it occur?
Beta hemolytic strep infection which occurs in the pharynx or skin and last for about 7-12 days.
Who is typically affect by Glomerulonephritis? What is the recovery percentage?
Mostly occurs in children. There is a 95% recovery rate, provided it is identified and treated.