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Flashcards in Repro Deck (21):
1

Maternal factors of dystocia?

primary or secondary uterine inertia (most common)
small pelvic size
abnormalities of caudal reproductive tract
malnutrition
parasitism

2

Fetal causes of dystocia

fetal malposition (most common)
fetal monsters
true oversize fetuses or fetal oversize in relation to maternal pelvis
fetal death

3

Causes of primary uterine inertia?

small litters (inadequate uterine stimulation)
large litters (overstretching of myometrium)
hypocalcemia
obesity
uterine infection
uterine torsion
trauma

4

7 factors to seek veterinary assistance during labor:

1. labor doesn't begin when expected (based on temp decrease or calculated due date)
2. stage two labor lasts 4 h+
3. >2 h between successive fetuses
4. mom looks ill or distressed
5. 30 min + of strong contractions w/o fetus
6. lots of green black discharge prior to FIRST fetus
7. significant bloody discharge

5

Oxytocin MOA?

alters transmembrane ionic currents, increasing sodium permeability of uterine myofibrils, causing myometrium to produce sustained uterine contractions

6

How many pairs of mammary glands do dogs and cats have?

5 pairs in most dogs (although may see 4-6 depending on size of dog)
2 thoracic, two abdominal, 1 inguinal

Cats have 4 pairs
Numbered 1-4 from cranial to caudal

7

What vessels supply the mammary glands?

Cranial glands: cranial superficial epigastric artery (branches off the internal thoracic artery)

Caudal glands: caudal superficial epigastric artery (branches off the external pudendal artery)

8

What is the most common cause of mastitis?

Ascending infection after trauma to the nipples by nursing puppies or kittens

9

Name some predisposing factors to the development of mastitis?

Skin disease
Contamination of mammary glands with lochia
Poor environmental conditions
Overcrowding
Galactostasis shortly before birth, after weaning, or loss of a litter

10

What are the most common bacteria to cause mastitis and how do they typically present?

Staph - lead to abscesses and gangrene
Strep - diffuse and spread into other glands
E. Coli - abscessation and septic mastitis

11

What are the most commonly affected mammary glands in cases of mastitis?

The caudal most glands during the acute phase

12

What signs may be seen with chronic mastitis?

Very few, the glands and milk may appear normal but the offspring may fail to gain weight, lose weight, or die

13

How is a diagnosis of mastitis obtained?

Cytology and culture and susceptibility of milk
Affected gland should be cleaned with dilute chlorhexidine, gloves should be worn, first drop of milk should be discarded

14

How does ultrasound of a normal mammary gland compare to one with mastitis?

In inflamed glands the distinctive layering seen in normal glands is absent.

A loss of echogenicity is also seen (normal glands have a mildly coarse grained and echogenic parenchyma)

15

What are some differentials diagnoses for a swollen, painful, mammary gland other than mastitis?

Mammary neoplasia
Trauma
Galactostasis
Severe pyoderma
Fibroadenomatous mammary hyperplasia (seen in young cats)

16

What are typical antibiotics chosen to treat mastitis and for how long are they typically prescribed?

Ampicillin (or clavamox) and enrofloxacin
Typically prescribed for 3-4 weeks

17

Can puppies/kittens continue to nurse while the mother has mastitis?

Yes, as long as the mother is not septic

18

What antibiotics are safe to use in nursing puppies/kittens?

Which antibiotics are not safe to use in nursing puppies/kittens?

SAFE:
Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Macrolides
*Fluoroquinolones if not yet ambulatory as damage to cartilage will be minimal/may not occur*

UNSAFE:
Chloramphenicol
Tetracyclines
Aminoglycosides

19

Other than antibiotics, what therapies can be done to treat mastitis?

Hot compresses several times daily
Abscesses can be lanced and necrotic tissue removed, should then be flushed with sterile saline

20

What is cabergoline and why is it used during treatment for mastitis?

It is a dopamine agonist
It is used to decrease prolactin and thereby decrease milk production, which prevents galactostasis in the other mammary glands

If offspring are present, it can be given for 2-3 days, if they have been weaned, it can be given for 8 or more days

21

why is cabergoline helpful in the treatment of pyometra?

it is a dopamine agonist that causes luteolysis by reducing prolactin concentrations; should be used along with a prostaglandins analogue