Flashcards in Repro 9 Deck (49)
What would happen if foetal blood passed through the liver and mix with venous blood from the body ?
It would lose most of its oxygen
What are the 4 most important systems to determine survival outside the uterus?
In the period up until the foetal period, what is the most important structure and what amount of weight does the foetus gain?
The placenta is the most important thing. It's needed to ensure there is a healthy pregnancy. There is not much weight gained by the embryo at this point.
When does the 'organogenetic' period occur ?
This occurs in the embryonic period, week 3-8.
What is the crown rump length and CRL would you expect of a foetus at:
1. 9 weeks
2. 12 weeks
3. 20 weeks
4. 26 weeks
5. 38 weeks
What structure of the foetus makes up approximately half of the CRL at around week 9?
The head, as brain development is imperative.
In a lady who is expecting her first child, at approximately what week would you expect her to feel foetal movements?
How is uterine expansion measured?
This is a regular measurement.
It's measure by the symphysis-fundal height.
It's measured from the top of the palpable uterus to the superior edge of the pubic symphysis.
Define the foetal period
Pre embryonic period - 3 weeks
Embryonic period - 3-8 weeks
Foetal period - 8 weeks to term.
What is the symphsis-fundal height
A measure from the top of the palpable uterus to the superior edge of the pubic symphysis.
What is USS and what are its key features.
- can detect ectopic pregnancy and the number of foetuses
- routinely carried out
- assesses foetal growth and anomalies
At which week is the USS routinely carried out?
At week 20.
When estimating foetal age, why is the last menstrual period not always the best idea?
It's prone to inaccuracies.
When is the CRL measured and what information does this give us?
It's done between week 7-13 and it dates the pregnancy as well as giving us the estimated due date.
Is CRL measurement used in all trimester? If so explain its use in later stages. If not, which trimester (s) is it not used in?
Not used in trimester 2 or 3.
What is the bi parietal diameter?
This distance between the parietal bones of the skull.
What is AC and FL and with which measurement are they used for dating and growth monitoring ?
Abdominal circumference and femur length
Used with bi parietal diameter to date and growth monitoring.
What is the average weight of a baby at birth and what is considered macrosomia and give one risk factor for such a baby.
3500g is considered average.
4500g is considered macrosomia and maternal diabetes is considered a risk factor for this.
Describe the 3 stages in the development of the respiratory system.
- Respiratory diverticulum appears as an outgrowth from the future oesphagous
- tracheoesphageal septum appears between the future trachea and oesphagous.
- separate structures appear - the oesphagous and trachea.
In terms of respiratory development, what is the name of the stage at weeks 8-16 and what is the epithelium that develops? Mention viability.
This is the pseudoglandular stage.
Duct systems begin to form within the bronchopulmonary tree.
No air sacs. The ducts are lined with columnar epithelium.
Discuss the stage in respiratory development from week 16-26. Viable?
This is the canalicular stage.
Respiratory bronchioles form from buds that were present in the pseudoglandular stage.
Still not suitable for gas exchange.
More terminal sacs, and towards the end of this period, the foetus may be viable.
What is the stage in respiratory development from week 26 - term? Is this viable?
This is the terminal sac stage.
Terminal sacs begin to bud from the respiratory bronchioles.
Differentiation of type I and II pneumocytes.
What epithelium are type I and II made from, and what are their duties?
Type I - simple squamous - one cell thick -gaseous exchange.
Type II - simple cuboidal - secrete surfactant.
What is respiratory distress syndrome if ore term delivery is unavoidable or inevitable, what treatment option is there?
This is when there is inadequate surfactant production by the foetus.
If the baby must be delivered for whatever reason, glucocorticoid treatment OF THE MOTHER can be commenced, which increases surfactant production of the foetus.
What is foetal bradycardia associated with?
What is oligohydramnios and how does it occur?
This is a reduction in amniotic fluid volume.
Normally occurs when foetal kidney function is compromised. Foetal kidney function is not necessary for in vivo survival however it's essential to amniotic fluid volume.
Why is the volume of the amniotic fluid so important?
It's an indication of problems.
- oligohydramnios could be due to placental insufficiency or foetal kidney compromise.
- polyhydramnios (too much) could be due to problems with foetal swallowing.
Briefly outline nervous system development in the foetus.
- First to begin developing and the last to finish.
- Corticospinal tracts required for voluntary movement only begin to develop from the 4th month.
- myelination of the brain only begins in the 9th month
- which is why you see increasing repertoire of movements within first year.
What is "quickening" and why is it important?
This is when the mother becomes aware of the foetal movements.
Usually occurs around week 17
Low cost and simple method of ante natal surveillance.
Allows assessment of which foetuses need to be followed up.