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Flashcards in Repro Development Deck (37):
1

the ____ _____ appear in the 5th week on the medial aspect of the _____ which give rise to ____/______

they are indistinguishable until week __

the gonadal ridges appear in the 5th week on the medial aspect of the mesonephros which give rise to testes/ovaries

they are indistinguishable until week 7

2

the _____ forms the male gonads

the ____ forms the female gonads

the medulla forms the male gonads

the cortex forms the female gonads

3

describe what the Y chromosome encodes for

  • Testis determining factor (TDF) encoded by the SRY gene on the short arm of Y chromosome which turns on testis development

4

what do the Sertoli cells produce?

Antimullerian hormone (AMH)

produced until puberty to suppress development of female ductal system

 

5

describe the 2 phases of testicular descent

  • transabdominal
    • "descent" of testis is a result of abdominal growth
  • inguinal
    • controlled by testosterone, guided into scrotum by gubernaculum

6

describe a congenital inguinal hernia

  • if the connecting portion of the processes vaginalis does not obliterate, it leaves a patency in the inguinal canal where intestines may herniate through

7

describe a hydrocele

  • the processes vaginalis contains a small amount of fluid before it obliterates
  • if the fluid does not get reabsorbed = hydrocele
  • identified by transilumination

8

describe cryptorchidism

  • testes do not descend into the scrotum
  • may be bi- or unilateral
  • testes can be anywhere along the normal descent pathway
    • usually found in the inguinal canal
  • higher risk of germ cell tumors

9

describe ectopic testis

  • after descending into the inguinal canal, it may become lodged in other areas
    • there is descent

10

development of the _______ ______ lead to male genital ducts, which is stimulated by ______ from the _____ ______

development of the mesonephric ducts lead to male genital ducts, which is stimulated by testosterone from the Leydig cells

11

development of the _______ ______ lead to female genital ducts, unless suppressed by ______ from  _____ _____ of developing teses

development of the paramesonephric ducts lead to female genital ducts, unless suppressed by AMH from  Sertoli cells of developing teses

12

the _____ _____ thickens acquiring smooth muscle and becomes the ____ _____

the mesonephric duct thickens acquiring smooth muscle and becomes the ductus deferens

13

outgrowth from the caudal end of the ______ _____ gives rise to the ____ _____

outgrowth from the caudal end of the mesonephric ducts gives rise to the seminal vesicles

14

endodermal outgrowths from the _____ _____ differentiate into glandular tissue giving rise to ________

endodermal outgrowths from the prostatic urethra differentiate into glandular tissue giving rise to the prostate

15

bulbourethral glands are paired outgrowths from the ____ _____

bulbourethral glands are paired outgrowths from the spongy urethra

16

describe the uterovaginal primordium

gives rise to the superior portion of the vagina

17

describe the sinovaginal bulbs

fuse to form a vaginal plate which breaks down to form the vaginal canal

18

describe the formation of the hymen

formed by an invagination of the posterior wall of the urogenital sinus that separates the vaginal cavity from the urogenital sinus

19

describe the formation of the greater vestibular glands

they form as an outgrowth of the urogenital sinus in the lower 1/3 of the labia majora

20

describe how a double uterus forms

incomplete fusion of the paramesonephric ducts

21

describe the formation of a bicornate uterus

2 uterus cavities separated by a septum: incomplete fusion is only superior

22

describe the formation of a unicornate uterus

incomplete development of one of the paramesonephric ducts 

23

describe how vaginal agenesis can occur

failure of the sinovaginal bulbs to develop and form the vaginal plate 

absence of the vagina is usually accompanied by absence of the uterus since the development of the uterus induces the formation of the sinovaginal bulbs

24

describe vaginal atresia 

incomplete canalization of the vaginal canal 

25

describe the Canal of Nuck

in females, the round ligament passes through the inguinal canal and also carries with it a portion of the peritoneum

if the processes vaginalis remains patent, it is called the Canal of Nuck and is subject to hernias and hydrocele

26

describe the formation of the spongy (penile) urethra

the urethral folds fuse on the ventral surface of the penis to form the spongy (penile) urethra and the penile raphe (where surface ectoderm meets in the midline)

27

describe the formation of the corpus cavernosum and spongiosum

the corpus cavernosum and spongiosum develop from the mesenchyme in the phallus

28

describe the formation of the scrotum

the scrotum forms when the labioscrotal folds grow together and fuse

29

describe hypospadias

failure of urethral folds to fuse results in abnormal orifices on the ventral surface of the penis

the most common anomaly of the penis (1/300)

30

describe epispadias

  • urethra opens on the dorsal surface of penis
  • often associated with exstrophy of the bladder

31

the labia minora/vestibule of the vagina are formed both from __________ and ________ (phallic part)

the labia minora/vestibule of the vagina are formed both from ectoderm of the urethral folds and endoderm of the UG sinus (phallic part)

32

the _____ forms the penis in males and clitoris in females

genital tubercle

33

describe ovotesticular DSD (true hemaphroditism)

  • rare and is a condition in which the gonads contain both ovarian and testicular tissue
  • phenotype may be male or female
  • chromosomal configuration usually 46, XX

34

describe 46, XY DSD

  • males who produce inadequate levels of testosterone and AMH in utero
  • external and internal genital organs vary in appearance due to variable degrees of development

35

describe 46, XX DSD

  • females who have been exposed to excessive amounts of androgens in utero = adrenal hyperplasia
    • causes masculinization of the external genitalia
  • enlargement of clitoris, partial fusion of the labia majora, persistent urogenital sinus

36

describe androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS)

  • individuals who appear female but have 46, XY chromosome configuration
  • results from cellular resistance to testosterone
  • vagina ends blindly, rudimentary or absent uterus and uterine tubes
  • testes present in the inguinal canal
  • female breast development at puberty
  • external genitalia is female or masculinized 

37

describe 5-alpha reductase deficiency

  • enzyme is necessary for conversion of testosterone to DHT
    • DHT is essential for masculinization of external genitalia
  • a deficiency in this enzyme leads to individuals that are genetically male 46, XY (with testes) appear female
    • the testes don't descend initially, but descend later