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ANSC exam 3 (last part before final) > Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (43):
1

Functions of Male Reproduction Anatomy (3)

1. production of sperm
2. delivery into female reproductive tract
3. 1/2 genetic offspring

2

function of testes

site of sperm production and testosterone production

3

how many days does it take for sperm to fully mature

9-25 days

4

function of the scrotum

thermoregulation
*testes need to be 4-5 degrees lower than body temp

5

function of the vas deferens

connects epididymis to the accessory sex glands

6

function of the epididymis

long tube that is responsible for transport

7

function of the sex glands

nutrients
buffers
contribute to volume of semen

8

function of the sigmoid flexure and retractor penis muscle

1. sigmoid flexor: straightens and erects penis
2. retractor penis muscle: holds penis inside animal

9

function of the urethra

urine excretion

10

function of penis

copulatory organ

11

function of sheath

skin protecting penis

12

functions of the female reproductive anatomy (6)

1. produce egg
2. transport semen
3. provide site for fertilization
4. gestation
5. parturition
6. estrous cycling (start over)

13

what is the vulva

external opening for reproduction

14

what is the vagina

copulatory organ
site of semen deposition in ewes, cows, deer, and humans

15

function of cervix

1. isolate uterus from external environment
2. passage of sperm
3. cervical plug during pregnancy
4. deposit site of semen for mares and sows

16

function of the uterus

fetal development
transport sperm
site of implantation

17

Difference between duplex, simple, and bicornuate uteruses and the species they pertain to

1. Duplex: has 2 cervixes and 2 uterine bodies-rabbits
2. simple: one cervix and one uterine body-humans
3. bicornuate: one cervix and 2 uterine bodies-cows, sheep, pigs

18

function of the oviduct (4)

site of fertilization
egg collection
maintain embryo
transport to uterus

19

function of the ovary

production of oocyte
produce hormones
1. estrogen
2. progesterone
3. oxytocin
4. relaxin

20

what type of hormones are estrogen and progesterone

steroid hormones

21

what type of hormones are oxytocin and relaxin

protein hormones

22

what is puberty

age of sexual maturity
age of which estrus with ovulation occurs

23

what are some factors that affect the onset of puberty

1. environment
2. nutrition
3. stress
4. genetics
5. social impacts

24

Define Estrous cycle

period of time from 1 heat to the next

25

what is the follicular phase

when the female expresses heat
Part 1: Estrus- signs of heat
--standing heat
--discharge from vulva
--vocalization

Part 2: Ovulation- follicle ruptures and releases egg after estrus cycle

26

What is the luteal phase

1. second phase of estrus

Corpus Luteum
--after ovulation the corpus luteum is formed and produces progesterone

27

CIDR

insert into the reproductive tract to release progesterone to suppress heat

28

name and define the 3 types of cyles

1. Seasonally Polyestrus
-come into heat certain times of the year (mares)
2. Polyestrus
-throughout the year they have a continuous estrous cycle
(cow, queen, pig)
3. Monoestrus
-one estrus cycle a year (dog, wolf, fox, bear)

29

Role of estrogen and where is it produced

produced in the ovary
-stimulates follicle growth, helps in signs of standing estrus

30

role of progesterone and where is it produced

produced in the corpus luteum
-blocks GnRH so the female can maintain pregnancy

31

role of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and where is it produced

produced in the pituitary gland
- stimulates follicle growth

32

role of LH (lutenizing hormone)

produced in the pituitary gland
- growth of CL and promotes ovulation of follicle

33

role of Gonadotropin Releasing hormone (GnRH)

produced in the hypothalamus
- stimulates the release of FSH and LH

34

role of PGF2a (Prostaglandin F2a)

produced in the uterus
-destroys the CL

35

define anestrus

time period when the cycle does not occur
*right after birth
*stress
*when pregnant
*pre puberty

36

what is formed when the egg and sperm meet

a zygote

37

define implantation

attachment of the embryo to the endometrium
(union is called placenta)

38

what does the placenta produce during pregnancy

progesterone

39

what are the four different types of placentas

1. diffused
2. cotyledonary
3. discoid
4. zonary

40

What are the differences between the 4 placentas
1. diffused
2. cotyledonary
3. discoid
4. zonary

1. Diffused (mares and sows)
-chorionic villi providing nutrients to fetus
2. cotyledonary
-ruminants
-cotyledons: button like structures that delivers blood and nutrients to fetus
3. discoid
-humans, rodents, primates
-regional discs over uterus
4. Zonary
-dogs, cats
-central zone of concentration on placenta

41

what is the umbilical cord

delivers directly to the fetus

42

what are the 3 stages of parturition

1. dilation of cervix and contractions
2. fetus exits uterus
3. placenta has to be delivered

43

what are some problems contributing to dystocia

1. position of fetus
2. size of fetus
3. stress
4. birth defects
5. multiple births
6. retained placenta