what does reproduction do?
assures maintenance of a species
is an energy-demanding physiological process
primary reproductive organs
ovaries and testes
have endocrine and reproductive functions
secondary reproductive organs
reproductive ducts and glands (e.g. uterus, fallopian tubes)
secondary sex structures and characteristics
involved in sexual attraction, NOT reproduction facial and pubic hair voice mammary glands plummage (birds) body color (reptiles)
what are the functional units of testes?
what performs reproductive function in males?
what are the endocrine cells in testes?
leydig cells (produce androgens) sertoli cells (produce inhibin)
what is the role of the basal lamina of testes?
forms blood/testis barrier
stores sperm and facilitates their functional maturation
adjusts the composition of tubular fluid
recycling center for damaged sperm
lined with pseudo-stratified columnar epithelial cells
make 60% of semen
contains fructose and prostaglandins
capacitation (functional maturation of sperm)
where does final maturation of sperm occur?
in the female reproductive tract
contains a slightly acidic solution that contributes to 20-30% of semen’s volume
what are reproductive hormones responsible for?
development (brain differentiation)
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
hypothamalic hormone that regulates FSH and LH release in the anterior pituitary
protein hormones produced by the anterior pituitary
controls steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrate glands
types: FSH, LH, chorionic gonadotropin (CG; is NOT produced in the pituitary)
gonadal steroid hormones
derived from cholesterol
regulate physiology via gene expression (binds to a nuclear hormone receptor in the target cell)
families: androgens and estrogens
what hormone is required for the action of Sertoli cells?
the formation of a sperm cell from a germ cell
creates four sperm cells for every spermatogonium
the FINAL step of spermatogenesis (a spermatid develops into sperm)
anatomy of a sperm cell
head (contains the nucleus with densely packed chromosomes; acrosome cap [has enzymes essential for egg penetration])
middle piece (contains the centrioles and mitochondria)
tail (has flagellum for movement)
functional unit of the ovary
where ovum develop
its cells produce estrogens, progesterone, and inhibin
human females are only born with a few hundred
development of an immature follicle into a mature one that releases a mature egg capable of fertilization
stages of the reproductive cycle
approx. 1 week long ‘sexual receptivity coincides with specific phase of the cycle
minimal-moderate amount of uterine tissue is lost
approx. 1 month long in humans
sexual receptivity is not limited to a specific phase
a substantial amount of uterine tissue is lost
what are the phases of the menstrual cycle?
increasing levels of GnRH, FSH, and estrogen
follicle transforms into the corpus luteum
progesterone is the dominant hormone
what signals the end of the follicular phase and the beginning of the luteal phase?
stimulates bone and muscle growth
maintains female secondary sex characteristics
affects CNS activity
maintains accessory reproductive glands and organs
initiates repair and growth of the uterine endometrium
the precursor for ALL steroid hormones
promotes elaboration of blood supply to functional zone
stimulates secretion of endometrial glands
growth of the maternal part of the placenta
ceases ovarian and menstrual cycle during pregnancy
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
maintains the corpus luteum
what pregnancy tests detect in urine
abstinence rhythm method (know when you're ovulating) tubal ligation vasectomy IUCD birth control