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Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (81)
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What DDX's would have you have mummifications?

  • Porcine Parvovirus
  • Porcine Myocarditis Syndrome (PMC)
  • Aujeszky's Disease (Pseudorabies)
  • JEV
  • PRRS
  • Porcine Sapelovirus


How do you work out how old the piglet was when it died ?  (calculation)

Age in days = (Crown rump lenght in mm/3) + 21


What is strange about Parvovirus infections of foetuses?

It does not infect piglets next to them in the uterus, it is completely random.


To enduce Farrowing (After day 113) how much Juramate would you use?

  • Juramate 0.7ml
  • Half dose 6hrs apart, farrow next day


What is the difference between Traditional AI and Post Cervical AI?

  • Traditional Ai
    • Catheter with attached semen bag is inserted into the cervix
    • Sow NEEDS head to head contact with boar to enable uterine contractions (she sucks in the semen)
  • Post Cervical AI
    • Catheter has inner tube which you extend past the cervix 1-2mins after insertion of the catheter
    • Sow needs to be relaxed and NOT stiumlated by boar
    • Boar runs though in morning to detect head. Sows are then alloed to eat and settle. Catheter goes into the uterus or even into a horn


To enduce Farrowing (After day 113) how much Lutalise would you use?

  • Lutalise 2ml



What is the route of infection

What is the Pathogenesis

What would be seen on PM

  • Route of Infection
    • Feral Pigs - Main reservoir host
    • Veneral disease (consumption of infected abortion and discharges)
    • Shed in vaginal discharge for 30days-30months
    • Suckers infected via milk (granulomas in glands)
  • Pathogenesis
    • Bacteraemia up to 90 days
    • Severe placental infection, embryonic dead and abortion
  • PM Findings
    • Purulent, necrotizing placentitis
    • Granulomatous lesions in liver


Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (Exotic to Australia)

How do you Diagnose PRRS?


  • Diagnose PRRS
    • Clinical Signs
    • Antibody Tests
      • Can take 2-3weeks for the antibody level to rise enough for a postive result and can disappear 6months after exposure
    • Lung tissue histology and special stainin techniques (immunoperoxidase) to show organism in lung
    • PCR examination of tissues, in particular used for semen examination


What is the number of Sperm cells in Billions required for

Mating with a Boar

Traditional AI

Post Cervical AI


What does Ad Libitum feeding mean?

When feeding Ad Lib how many feeders do you need?

  • Feed is available ALL THE TIME
  • At least 1 feeder per 10 pigs


What disease can cause Stillborns in pigs?

  • Leptospirosis
  • Porcine Myocarditis Syndrome (PMC)
  • JEV
  • PRRS
  • Porcine Sapelovirus


How many embryos is required for a pig pregnancy?

Need a minimum of 5 embryos


Wean to 1st service interval taget days?



How do you know if a Boar has ejaculated?

Look at the anus for ejaculation winking, which must last 3 mins or more


What does this US tell you?

When would you use US?

  • US shows foetal vesicles - this sow is pregnant
  • Use US to tell pregnancy after 28days


What is the most common Serovar for Leptospirosis in pigs?



What does SMEDI stand for?

Still Birth


Embryonic Death



What is the Regular return to Service (RTS) interval?

3weeks (18-24days)


At what age (days) of gestation do unborn piglets gain immuno-compentency?

Immuno-competency = Day 70 of Gestation


What is the most common reproduction disease for pigs?


Porcine Parvovirus PPV


Name these parts of the female reproductive tract


How do you diagnose Brucellosis?

  • Dirtect Culture of
    • Lymph nodes
    • Vaginal swabs
    • Aborted piglets/placenta
    • Semen samples
    • Castrated testicles


When accessing a pigs envrionment what 4 things do we look at?

  • Food
  • Floor
  • Air
  • Water


What is the Treatment and control of Brucellosis?

  • No Commercial vaccines
  • Transient immunity (6-12 months)
  • Use of SPF herd semen


  • Eradication - Large scale programs on national level (US, Australia - B.abortus)


What are some reproductive drugs used in the pig industry

  • Oral Progesterone - Regumate
  • PMSG/hSG - PG600 (mimic FSH and LH)
  • Prostaglandins - Lutalyse, Juramate, Estrumate
    • Abortion or Enduce to farrow
  • Oxytocin 0.5ml
    • After they Farrow
    • If sow hasnt had a piglet for over 30 mins


What is the target guild farrowing rate?




  • What are the clinical signs of Lepto in pigs?
  • How do you Diagnose Lepto?
  • What Treatment and Control is there?

  • Clinical signs
    • Abortions, stillbirths (1-4weeks after exposure)
    • Birth of Weak piglets
    • Some stillborn piglets infected later in gestation will have detectable antibiodies titres
    • Vast majority are subclinical infections
    • Incubation period - Bacteraemia starts 1-2days post infection (lasts 1week) Antibodies appear in circulation after 5-10days (peak @ 3weeks)
  • Route of Infection
    • Introduced Stock, Contaminated environment or infected animal vectors (rodents)
    • Exposure to infected animal, contaminated effluent, water, soil
    • Enter through the Mucous Membranes.
    • Voided in urine
  • Diagnosis
    • Antibodis - Sample 10% of herd OR rising antibody titres for individuals, fetal serum
    • Leptospires - in fetal tissues, culture difficult, PCR can be attempted
  • Treatment and Control
    • Treat affected Herd with OXYTETRACYCLINE in feed.
    • Vaccination prevents clinical disease but not necessarily infection
    • Vaccine Twice Yearly


Post weaning mortality (deaths from weaning to finisher phase) target is?



What happens if Signal One (Day 10) does not happen?

Not Pregnant

RTS 18-24days


Where would you inject a IM injection?

In the middle of the triangle behind the ear 


When is and what is SIGNAL ONE?

  • The free living embryo at about day 10 releases Oestrogen Suphate


What happens if the Foetus dies after day 35?

If embryos are present after day 35 at least one piglet survives the pregnancy will continue. ANy piglets which die will be expelled as mummified foetuses


What Health impacts could there be if you have an out of feed event?

  • Risk of stomach ulcers
  • Haemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) - distended bloated gut without torsion
  • Tail biting
  • Salmonella
  • Ileitis
  • Fat deposition


When should fertalization occur?

Within 6 hours of ovulation


When does the Embryo implant into the uterus? And what happens then?

  • Day 14-17
  • SIGNAL TWO - implanted embryo's release Oestrogen Sulpate


What is the causative agent for Brucellosis?

What is important to know about Brucellosis in Australia?

Brucellosis suis


Brucellosis is Zoonotic

Brucellosis is notifable in WA


What water flow rate do you need for :-

  • Weaners
  • Growers
  • Lactating Sows

  • Weaners - 0.5L/min
  • Growers - 1L/min
  • Lactating Sows 2L/min


Where is Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (Exotic to Australia)

What are the Clinical Signs in Endemic herds?


  • Two types through out the world, Not in Australia or South Africa
  • Clinical Signs
    • Breeders
      • Generally reproductive
        • Stillborn
        • Mummies
        • Weak
      • Mild Pyrexia
      • Anorexia
    • Piglets
      • Weak/sickly
      • Hight mortality
      • CNS
      • Thumping
    • Weaner/Growers
      • Dyspnoea
      • Anorexia
      • Lethargy
      • Reduced growth rates (2ndry respiratory infections are common)
      • Conjunctivitis
  • Signs in Endemic Herds
    • Homologous immunity
    • Clinical disease in susceptible subpopulations
      • Nursery-grower pigs, maternal immunity decays
      • Replacement gilts or sows previously not infected
      • Congenitally infected progeny
    • Entry of a new, unrelated PRRS virus


To enduce Farrowing (After day 113) how much Estrumate would you use?

  • Estrumate 0.7ml


Of the following Disorders of the Reproductive System which are present in Australia?

  • Porcine Parvovirus PPV
  • Leptospirosis
  • Brucellosis
  • PCV2
  • Porcine Myocarditis Syndrome (PMC)
  • Aujeszky's Disease/Pseudorabies
  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV)
  • Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)

  • Porcine Parvovirus PPV 
  • Leptospirosis
  • Brucellosis  (Notifable in WA)
  • PCV2
  • Porcine Myocarditis Syndrome (PMC) - Notifiable in WA
  • Aujeszky's Disease/Pseudorabies  (EAD)
  • Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV)  (EAD)
  • Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) (EAD)


What are the pathogens that have potential to cause scours in pre-weaned piglets

  • E. coli
  • C. perfringens
  • C. difficile
  • Rotavirus
  • Coccidia


At what age is castration done?

7-10 days


Aujeszky's Disease/Pseudorabies

What is the Clinical Signs?

Incubation Period

Route of Infection


Treatment and Control

  • Clinical Signs?
    • Piglets and Weaners
      • CNS signs (Ataxia, Convulsions)
      • Sudden Death
    • Weaners and Growers
      • Ill thrift
      • Secondary infections and respiratory signs
      • Reduced Growth
    • Adults
      • Reproductive signs predominate
        • Abortions, Mummification
        • Infected in early pregnancy will result in embryonic death
        • Infected in close to term give birth to stillborn or weak piglets
  • Incubation Period
    • 2-6days
  • Route of infection 
    • Oralnasal Exposure
  • Diagnosis
    • Clinical Signs across the herd in different stages
    • Dead Dogs & Cats
  • Treatment and Control
    • Vaccine Available


What ratio of irregular RTS : Regular RTS do you want



Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (Exotic to Australia)

What are the Clinical Signs in Naive herds?

  • Clinical Signs
    • Breeders
      • Generally reproductive
        • Stillborn
        • Mummies
        • Weak
        • Mild Pyrexia
        • Anorexia
    • Piglets
      • Weak/sickly
      • High mortality
      • CNS
      • Thumping
    • Weaner/Growers
      • Dyspnoea
      • Anorexia
      • Lethargy
      • Reduced growth rates (2ndry respiratory infections are common)
      • Conjunctivitis
    • Signs in Naive Herds
      • Phase 1 (lasts 2+ weeks)
        • Spreads within 3-7 days to all groups/ages - rolling inappetence
        • Pyrexia (39-41oC)
        • Hyperpnoea/Dyspnoea
        • 1-2% develop blotchy cutaneous hyperaemia/Cyanosis of ears/nose
        • Increase in RTS
        • Abortions
        • Decreased farrowing rate
        • Sow Mortalities
        • Boars lack libido
        • Reduction in semen quality 2-10 weeks after infection, virus transmitten in semen
      • Phase 2 (Lasts 1-4months)
        • 5-80% sows farrow 100-118 days with combinations of normal, weak, premature, dead, stillborn and mummified pigs
        • Pre-weaning mortality upto 60%
        • Premature piglets die within a couple of days and majority of piglet deaths <7 days but if continue
          • Emaciation/starvation
          • Dysponea, Hyperpnoea
          • Splay Legs
          • Swollen Eyelids
          • Secondary Infections


how long does a pig need to be fasted before a General Anaesthetic?

6-8hours, do not remove access form water


Why would you Vasectomise a Boar?

  • Indications
    • Vasectomised boars (V boars) are used for stimulating gilts - stilll have male characteristics cant impregnante the female.


How can you preg check a sow/guilt?

  • Anytime heat detection in the presence of the boar 
  • 18-24days heat detection with boar (Regular RTS)
  • 21days + Ultrasound real time scanner
  • 25-35 days heat detection with boar (irregular RTS)
  • 28 days doppler machine for uterine pulse
  • 8weeks by eye


When does the Progesterone switch from comming from the CL to coming from the piglets?

Day 63+ the piglets will produce the progesteron


When castrating male pigs at what age do they need anaesthesia?

Anaesthesia is required from 21days +


What drugs would be used to enduce Farrowing?

  • PG
    • Lutalise 2ml
    • Juramate 0.7ml
    • Estrumate 0.7ml
  • Best results halve the dose adn administer 6 horus apart. Farrow the next day
  • Do not induce too early (Not before day 113)


WHat reproductive surgeries could you do on a female pig?

  • Caesarian Section
  • Hysterectomy
  • Ovariohysterectomy
  • Embryo Transfer


Aujeszky's Disease/Pseudorabies

What is important to note about Aujeszky's Disease?

What characteristics does this disease have?

  • Exotic to Australia
  • Herpes Virus


Nipah Virus

Causal Agent?

What are the Clinical Signs?

How do you Diagnose?

What Treatment is available?

  • Causal Agent
    • Paramyxovirus related to Henra Virus
  • Clinical Signs
    • Weaners
      • Mild to sever coughing,
      • High morbidity
      • Low Mortality
    • ​Adult Pigs
      • Moderate to severe respiratory signs
      • Dyspnoea
      • Convulsions
      • Death (can occur within several hours)
  • Diagnose
    • Consolidation of the pungs at PM
    • Kidneys show signs of congestion
    • Other organs normal
    • Virus Isolation
    • Serology
  • Treatment
    • None Available


Lable this diagram


What treatment options are there for PRRS?

  • Treatments aim to minismise secondary infections
  • Aim to keep pigs warm and in draught free environment
  • Increase feed density to compensate for anorexia


  • No Vaccinations available in Australia
  • Reportable Disease - Eradication


  • Testing of sourse herds
  • Quarantine (minimum 30 days) & testing prior to release
  • Good Farm Biosecurity
  • Positive Herds need a combination of gilt/boar acclimatization and vaccination
  • Antibiotics are only supportive in the face of an outbreak


  • All in/ all out and hygiene essential precursors
  • Killed Vaccine
    • Generally no or little protection in naive animals
    • Reduce excreation of virus and reduce clinical signs in infected herds
  • Modified Live Vaccine (MLV)
    • Very variable in response depending on mnodification and PRRS variant
    • Several can cause sever CS's without field virus. In addition, there can be little protectin provided for differenet virus strains
    • Allowing sufficient time between vaccination and field infection is essential


  • Review fly and mosquito conrol programs
  • Practice on farm AI collection do not rely on commercial ai stud
  • Air Filtration 


When does the skeleton for in a pig foetus?

Day 35


Porcine Myocarditis Syndrome (PMC)

Causal Agent?

Clinical Signs?


Treatment and Control?

  • Causal Agent
    • Bungowannah virus - Pestivirus
  • Clinical Signs
    • Stillbirths
    • Mummies
    • Pre-weaning losses (multifocal non-suppurative myocarditis)
    • Large piglets, brain damage
      • No suckle reflex
      • No teat seaking
      • No avoidance behaviours
    • Post-Weaning losses from heart attacks
  • Diagnosis
    • PCR
    • Histopath
    • Serology
  • Treatment and Control
    • Exposure of gilts prior to mating


What does Regumate do?

It is a exogenous Progesterone - which stops folliculs From progressing. 


What DDX would have have for Abortions

  • Leptospirosis
  • Brucellosis
  • Aujezsky Disease - Pseudorabies
  • JEV


Where are the locations for IV medications?

Ear vein, Right Jugular Vein


Porcine Parvovirus (PPV)

  • What are the clinical signs of PPV?
  • How do you Diagnose PPV?
  • What Treatment and Control is there?

  • Clinical Signs
    • Mummified foetuses of different ages
    • Seldom causes abortino (unless unprotected herd)
    • Increased RTS
    • Small BAL
    • May be seen affecting gilts more than sows
    • Takes 10-14days from exposure to infect a foetus/embryo
  • Diagnosis
    • Clinical Signs
    • reproductive disorder without sow illness
    • Small mummified foetuses - lungs for immunohistochem
  • Treatment and Control
    • Vaccine - Parvac
      • At selection (twice) and propr to mating
      • Boars twice yearly


Lable this diagram


What are the clinical signs for Brucellosis?

  • Abortion - any stage of gestation, upto 80% in naive herds RTS
  • Orchitis - not necessarily a reduction of fertality
    • Persistant infection in boars (granulomas)
  • No Pyrexia, clinical signs transient
  • Death Rare
  • Bacteraemia for 5 weeks
  • Many pigs can remain permanently infected
  • Weak or normal born piglets
  • Lameness
  • Spondylitis
  • Posterior paralysis


At what temperature do you store extended pig semen?



What should the Ammonia concetration be in a shed?



Lable this diagram


At waht stage do piglets get weaned?

7.0 kg (21days)

8.5 kg (28days)


What volume of fluid in mL is required for 

  • Mating with a boar
  • Traditional AI
  • Post Cervical AI


What does PG600 contain?

What does it do?

  • PG600 contains PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonodotrophin) and hCG (Human Choronic Gonadotrophin)
  • It acts like FSH and LH and is used on Gilts to enduce oestrus, or in sows who have a delayed RTS


Lable the picture


Japenese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) - Exotic to Australia

Clinical Signs



  • Clinical Signs
    • Clinical illnes not a feature of diease in adult pigs (maybe transient anorexia and mild pyrexia)
    • Stillbirths,
    • Mummies,
    • Abortion
    • Weak neurological piglets
    • Subcutaneous oedema
    • Hydrocephalus
    • Cerebellar hypoplasia
    • Generally limited signs in piglets affected <70days gestation (similar to Parvovirus
    • Orchitis (oedematous, congested) in boars
  • Diagnosis
    • Virus isolation
    • Flourescent abtibody test
    • Immunohistochem
    • PCR
  • Control
    • Vaccination available overseas


How many days for pig gestation?



What happens if Signal One (Day 10) happens but Signal Two (Day 14-17) does not happen?

Sow RTS 25-35 days (irregular RTS)


Porcine Parvo Virus kills unborn piglets in seronegative dams exposed at <56 days of gestation.

The piglets dont become immuno-competent until gestation day 70,

why if the Sow was exposed at day 65 wouldnt the piglets die?

In a naive animal it takes 10-14 days from exposure to infect a foetus/embryo


When assising Air what should the Ambient Air Temperature be

  • Pre-Farrowing
  • At Farrowing
  • 2 days after Farrowing

When do cooling systems need to be used?

What temp should the air be for sleeping piglets?

What should the relative humidity be?

  • Pre-Farrowing - 16degrees
  • At Farrowing - 20 degrees
  • 2 days after Farrowing - 16 degrees


  • above 24degrees
  • 30degrees
  • 50-75% humidity


What are some pointers to look for for successful heat detection of a pig

  • Vulva Reddens and Sweels, then starts to subside from around the time of ovulation
  • From Oestrus sows will stand still, and their ears will become pricked, they may even go off their feed. 
  • They will stand for approximately 1 day to pack pressure
  • Inseminate between 12-36hors after ovulation


What happens at Day 35 Gestation?

Bone is formed in the foetus


How many days is a Pigs cycle?

21 days


Light is measured in Lux at what level should it be in the shed?

>50 lux


Name the catheter types used in Pig AI