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Flashcards in Reproduction Drugs Deck (65)
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What is menarche?

when hormones begin cycling


Estrogen is responsible for

1. Uterine lining build up
2. Decreased libido
3. Impaired thyroid fx and blood sugar
4. Mood/Depression/PMS
5. Water retention
6. Increases risk for breast/endometrial cancer


Progesterone is responsible for

1. Maintaining uterine lining to allow pregnancy
2. Decreasing uterine motility to increase implantation
3. Maintenance of pregnancy
4. Thickening cervical yucas (prevents bacteria from entering)
5. Increasing blood sugar for embryo, anti insulin effect


When is progesterone released into circulation?

After ovulation


What organ releases GnRH and when?

Hypothalamus releases GnRH at puberty


Role of GnRH

Stimulates follicles to grow
2. Follicles produce Estrogen (automatically released into circulation) & Progesterone (stays in follicle until ovulation)
3. High estrogen = inc in LH (released by anterior pituitary)
4. LH surge = burst follicle and ovum release = ovulation = progesterone release


What is the corpus luteum?

ruptured follicle that turns into endocrine gland after ovulation


Explain relationship between corpus luteum and estrogen/progestrone production

Corpus Luteum continues producing estrogen/progestrone for 10-14 days after ovulation, unless pregnancy occurs

If pregnant, will continue producing estrogen and progesterone until the placenta develops and becomes functional


Relationship between light and reproductive hormones

Inc light levels = LH/FSH release = early sexual maturation

Dec light = puberty/sexual development at later ages


What is menopause?

Women's body no longer produces estrogen/progesterone


The loss of estrogen/progesterone leads to

1. Dry vaginal tissues (Increased UTI, painful sex)
2. Decreased bone density
3. Vasospasms which cause hot flashes


When is a patient considered to be in menopause?

18 months are menstruation stops


What are the risks for hormone replacement therapies for menopause?

1. Estrogen Only: inc risk for endometrial/breast cancer

2. Estrogen+Progesterone Combo: Increases the risk of CV disease, stroke, DVT


Function of Vas Deferens

1. Stores sperm
2. Carries sperm from testes to be ejaculated


Function of Prostate Gland

produces enzymes to stimulate sperm maturation


Seminiferous tulles produce



Leydig cells produce



What happens when FSH is released in males?

1. Stimulates seminiferous tubules to produce sperm (spermatogenesis)

2. stimulates Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules to produce estrogens providing a negative feedback to pituitary and hypothalamus = decrease in release of GnRH, FSH and LH


Purpose of negative feedback in males

prevents overproduction of sperm in testes


What is andropause?

Atrophy of seminiferous tubules & interstitial cells leading to loss of testosterone effects


What is estrogen used for?

1. Stimulate ovulation in women with hypogonadism
2. Prevent conception
3. Replace hormones after menopause


Contraindications of Estrogen Use

1. Smoking (increase risk of clot)
2. Grapefruit (inhibits metabolism = increase levels)
3. St. Johns Wort (decrease effectiveness of BC with estrogen)
4. Corticosteroids (toxic effects)


What is Estradol?

Is a potent endogenous female sex hormone, responsible for estrogen effects on the body


What is Estradol used for?

1. Menopause
2. Prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women
3. Ovarian failure
4. Inoperable breast/ prostatic cancer (inhibits growth of hormone sensitive tissue)


Adverse effects of Estradol

1. Corneal changes
2. Cholasma
3. Hepatic Adenoma (liver tumor)
4. Peripheral edema
5. Photosensitivity
6. GI Symptoms
7. Change in menstrual flow (breakthrough bleeds, dysmenorrhea)


What is Cholasma?

1. Large brown patches on skin, mainly on face
2. Temporary condition due to hormone changes


Purpose of Norethindrone Acetate

1. Inhibits secretion of pituitary FSH and LH
2. Prevent ovulation
3. Inhibits uterine contractions
4. Makes a proliferative endometrium into a secretory endometrium


What is Norethindrone Acetate used for?

1. Amenorrhea (no period) treatment
2. Abnormal uterine bleeding from hormonal imbalance
3. Treatment of endometriosis
4. Component of hormonal contraceptives


Proliferative Endometrium vs Secretory Endometrium

Proliferative: cells are multiplying and spreading = rise in estrogen = thick endometrium

Secretory: lining is prepared for pregnancy or sloughed if not pregnant


Adverse Effects of Norethindrone Acetate

1. Venous thromboembolism
2. Diplopia or loss of vision
3. Migraine headache
4. Breakthrough bleeding or spotting
5. Amenorrhea
6. Fluid retention – weight increase
7. Edema
8. Cholasma