What are the classes of uterus based on degree of fusion of the paramesonephric duct?
Simplex - no uterine horns, just oviducts - eg. humans & primates
Duplex - two cervical canals (& two vaginas) - marsupials & rabbits
Bipartite - poorly to moderately developed horns - eg. mare, cow, ewe (monotocous or low-polytocous species)
Bicornuate - highly developed horns - eg. sow, ewe, bitch, queen (highly polytocous)
The broad ligament is comprised of four bilateral sheets that anchor organs of the reproductive tract to the abdominal roof & the pelvic walls.
What are the four sheets and what are they attached to?
1. Mesometrium - attaches to the uterus
2. Mesovarium - attaches to the ovaries
3. Mesosalphinx - attaches to the oviducts
3. Round ligament (lateral fold)
What is the intercornual ligament?
Membrane attachment between the two uterine horns.
What is the proper ligament?
Membrane that attaches the caudal pole of ovary to the adjacent horn.
What is the suspensory ligament of the female reproductive tract?
It's the peritoneal fold that attaches the cranial pole of the ovary to abdominal wall adjacent to last rib
What is the ovarian bursa?
Fold of peritoneum that covers the ovary and may hide it
- forms an enclosed pouch
What is the blood supply to the ovaries?
The ovarian artery, which comes off the aorta.
NB The ovarian artery also has a uterine branch. This branch of the ovarian artery winds around the uterine vein, allowing counter-current transfer of PFG2a (short half-life) back into the artery to the ovaries to induce luteolysis.
What is the blood supply to the uterus?
The uterine artery, which comes off the internal iliac artery, except in the mare.
What is unique about the mare's ovary relative to other large animals?
Her ovary is "inside-out". The cortex & medulla are reversed.
Since the mare's ovary is "inside-out", where does she ovulate her ovum?
Into the ovulation fossa.
How does the mucosal structure of the ampulla differ from that of the isthmus?
The ampulla is slightly wider in diameter with ciliated epithelium.
The ampulla-isthmic junction is the regulation point for the mare - if the oocyte doesn't get fertilised, it stops here. A buildup of oocytes can occur here in the mare.
The isthmus is narrower in diameter & has non-ciliated epithelium.
The uterotubal junction is the regulation point for cows. This is the junction of the isthmus and the uterus.
What are the effects of progesterone and oestrogen on uterine tone?
Oestrogen will lead to greater tone and progesterone to less tone, except in the mare.