Reproduction Final Part 4 (Pozor) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reproduction Final Part 4 (Pozor) Deck (32):
1

Describe the prototherian group and name some members.

-Egg-laying mammals
-Platypus & Echidna

2

Describe the metatherian group and name some members.

-Mammals without true placenta
-Marsupials

3

Describe the eutherian group and name some members.

-Mammals with a chorioallantoic placenta AKA "true placenta"
-All non-marsupial or egg-laying mammals

4

Name some of the roles of the placenta.

-Acts as a respiratory interface with the fetus
-Acts as a metabolic organ to synthesize nutrient and energy substrates
-Allows diffusion of existing nutrients
-Acts as an endocrine organ and secretes hormones
-Separates mother from fetus

5

Name some of the hormones synthesized/secreted by the placenta.

-Progesterone
-Estrogen
-Placental lactogen
-Equine chorionic gonadotropin (where applicable)

6

What becomes the umbilical cord?

Inner cell mass

7

What develops as an outgrowth of the hindgut?

Allantois

8

Describe the trophoblast.

-Forms much of the placenta
-Cells on the outside of the blastocyst
-Eventually leads to the development of the chorion

9

In the choioallantois, which portion supplies the vasculature?

Allantoic portion

10

From where does the amnion develop?

folds of the chorion

11

The yolk sac is derived from what two sources?

-Trophoectoderm
-Extraembryonic mesoderm

12

T/F: The yolk sac grows as the allantois expands.

FALSE
The yolk sac regresses dramatically as the allantois expands.

13

Describe the bovomane/hippomane.

-Not apart of the placenta
-Free-floating in the allantoic fluid
-Composed of mucoproteins

14

For each of the following placental shapes, give a brief description of the contact it shares with the mother:
-Diffuse
-Cotyledonary
-Zonary
-Discoid

-Diffuse --> contact is achieved all over the placenta

-Cotyledonary --> fetal cotyledon + maternal caruncle = placentome. Each placentome is a zone of contact.

-Zonary --> contact is achieved in a belt-like area around the placenta

-Discoid --> contact is achieved in one or two round areas of the placenta

15

Briefly describe each of the four degrees of placental invasion.

Epitheliochorial --> no invason

Syndesmochorial --> maternal and fetal cells fuse to form a syncytium

Endotheliochorial --> placenta invades through maternal musculature to vasculature

Hemochorial --> placenta invades maternal musculature, breaks vasculature, and is bathed in maternal blood

16

Describe the three types of exchange mechanisms between fetal and maternal vasculature.

-Countercurrent system --> two systems flow in opposite directions; very efficient

-Cross-current system --> a mixture of countercurrent systems (opposite directions) and concurrent systems (same direction)

-Multivillous system --> difficult to characterize due to significant branching

17

Describe the five degrees of interdigitation of vasculature between a fetus and its mother.

-Folded --> endometrium has undulations unto which the trophoblast is draped

-Lamellar --> more elaborate form of folding

-Trabecular --> even more elaborate form of folding which forms some level of branching

-Villous --> fetal vasculature forms extensive tree-like branches

-Labyrinthine --> fetal vasculature forms almost a sponge-like configuration

18

Contrast deciduate type placentation from adeciduate type.

Deciduate placentas result in loss of maternal tissue at implantation and at partruition. Adeciduate placentas detatch without loss of maternal tissue.

19

For the HORSE, describe the following in reference to its placental types:
-Shape
-Invasion
-Interdigitation
-Maternal loss

Shape: diffuse
Invasion: epitheliochorial
Interdigitation: microcotyledonary
Maternal loss: adeciduate

20

For the PIG, describe the following in reference to its placental types:
-Shape
-Invasion
-Interdigitation
-Maternal loss

Shape: diffuse
Invasion: epitheliochorial
Interdigitation: folded
Maternal loss: adeciduate

21

For the COW, describe the following in reference to its placental types:
-Shape
-Invasion
-Interdigitation
-Maternal loss

Shape: cotyledonary
Invasion: epitheliochorial
Interdigitation: villous
Maternal loss: adeciduate

22

For the EWE, describe the following in reference to its placental types:
-Shape
-Invasion
-Interdigitation
-Maternal loss

Shape: cotyledonary
Invasion: syndesmochorial
Interdigitation: villous
Maternal loss: adeciduate

23

For the GOAT, describe the following in reference to its placental types:
-Shape
-Invasion
-Interdigitation
-Maternal loss

Shape: cotyledonary
Invasion: syndesmochorial
Interdigitation: ---
Maternal loss: adeciduate

24

For the DOG, describe the following in reference to its placental types:
-Shape
-Invasion
-Interdigitation
-Maternal loss

Shape: zonary
Invasion: endotheliochorial
Interdigitation: labyrinthine
Maternal loss: deciduate

25

For the CAT, describe the following in reference to its placental types:
-Shape
-Invasion
-Interdigitation
-Maternal loss

Shape: zonary
Invasion: endotheliochorial
Interdigitation: labyrinthine
Maternal loss: deciduate

26

For the PRIMATE, describe the following in reference to its placental types:
-Shape
-Invasion
-Interdigitation
-Maternal loss

Shape: discoidal
Invasion: hemochorial
Interdigitation: trabecular
Maternal loss: deciduate

27

For the MOUSE, describe the following in reference to its placental types:
-Shape
-Invasion
-Interdigitation
-Maternal loss

Shape: discoidal
Invasion: hemochorial
Interdigitation: labyrinthine
Maternal loss: deciduate

28

For the LLAMA, describe the following in reference to its placental types:
-Shape
-Invasion
-Interdigitation
-Maternal loss

Shape: diffuse
Invasion: epitheliochorial
Interdigitation: ---
Maternal loss: adeciduate

29

Describe hemopahgous zones.

-Specialized area of carnivore placenta where a considerable amount of blood is extravasated.
-Phagocytoses maternal erythrocytes for iron uptake.
-Form green or brown pigments seen at birth when the placenta ruptures
-Also found within placentomes

30

Describe areolae.

-Areas of chorion with clustered microvilli overlying the mouths of the uterine glands.
-Glandular secretions separate the two epithelia.
-In the horse, they surround the microcotyledon area.
-In the pig, they are very large and contain uteroferrin (which is purple).

31

Describe necrotic tips.

-Found in the porcupine placenta
-Avascular paraplacental region on either end
-Prevents vascular anastomoses between adjacent placentas in utero.

32

Describe endometrial cups.

-Only invasive structure in the equine placenta
-Secrete high volumes of equine chorionic gonadotropin
-Formed by trophoblast cells
-Binucleate