How does the venous drainage of the left and right gonads differ?
The left ovary/testis drains via the left gonadal vein and left renal vein into the inferior vena cava; the right ovary/testis drains directly from the right gonadal vein to the inferior vena cava
Which lymph nodes might be biopsied, if needed, for a patient with a testicular or ovarian malignancy?
The para-aortic lymph nodes, which are the lymphatic drainage of the gonads
Which bilateral organ other than the gonads has similar venous drainage to the gonads (ie, the left organ drains to the left renal vein and the right organ drains to the inferior vena cava)?
The adrenal glands
Lymph from the distal one third of the vagina/vulva/scrotum would drain to which lymph nodes?
The superficial inguinal lymph nodes
Lymph from the proximal two thirds of the vagina/uterus would drain to which three lymph nodes?
Obturator, external iliac, and hypogastric lymph nodes
Which vessels are found within the suspensory ligament of the ovaries?
The ovarian vessels
Which vessels are found within the transverse cervical (cardinal) ligament?
The uterine vessels
Which vessels are found within the round ligament?
(remember: round like the number of structures it carries: 0)
What structures are contained within the broad ligament of the uterus?
The round ligament of the uterus, the fallopian tubes, and the ovaries
Name the ligament that attaches the ovary to the uterus.
The ligament of the ovary (do not confuse with the suspensory ligament of the ovary)
Name the ligament that attaches to the superior aspect of the uterus, travels through the inguinal canal, and attaches distally to the labia majora.
Round ligament of the uterus
Name the ligament that attaches the ovaries to the lateral pelvic wall.
The suspensory ligaments of the ovaries
What ligament attaches the cervix to the side wall of the pelvis?
The transverse cervical (cardinal) ligament
What is the name of the space between the uterus and the rectum?
The pouch of Douglas
Through which structures do sperm travel during ejaculation?
Seminiferous tubules, Epididymis, Vas deferens, Ejaculatory ducts, Nothing, Urethra, Penis
(remember: SEVEN UP)
Erection is mediated by the _____ (sympathetic/parasympathetic) nervous system, whereas ejaculation is mediated by the _____ (sympathetic/parasympathetic) nervous system.
(remember Point & Shoot)
What is the role of nitric oxide in the physiology of penile erection?
Nitric oxide is proerectile, causing smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation via the cGMP pathway to increase blood flow to the penis
Name two drugs that are proerectile and work via the nitric oxide pathway.
What is the effect of norepinephrine on the male sexual response?
Norepinephrine is antierectile, causing smooth muscle contraction and vasoconstriction via calcium influx to reduce blood flow to the penis
Which nerve is responsible for emission (the release of ejaculatory fluid into the urethra)?
The hypogastric nerve (the sympathetic nervous system)
Which nerve is responsible for ejaculation?
The pudendal nerve (visceral and somatic components)
The acrosome of the sperm is derived from what organelle?
The Golgi apparatus
The flagellum (tail) of the sperm is derived from what organelle.
One of the centrioles
The middle piece (neck) of the sperm contains what organelle?
(remember Middle piece has Mitochondria)
What is the sperm's food supply?
(remember: Feeds on Fructose)
What is the final phase of spermatogenesis called?
Spermiogenesis, in which a spermatid becomes a spermatozoa
Of the cells found in the seminiferous tubules, what are the germ cells called? The non-germ cells? The endocrine cells?
Spermatogonia; Sertoli cells; Leydig cells
Which cell types line the apical side of seminiferous tubules?
Sertoli cells and spermatogonia
Name six general functions of Sertoli cells.
Secretion of inhibin, secretion of androgen-binding protein, formation of the blood-testis barrier, support and nourishment of developing sperm, regulation of spermatogenesis, and production of anti-müllerian hormone
(remember: Sertoli cells Support Sperm Synthesis)
What is the effect of inhibin released by Sertoli cells?
Inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone release
What is the effect of androgen-binding protein released by Sertoli cells?
Androgen-binding protein maintains the high testosterone levels that are required for spermatogenesis
Why is a blood-testis barrier necessary?
It isolates genetically unique sperm from the immune system, preventing autoimmune attack
What are the three major components of semen?
Seminal vesicle products (60% of total volume), prostate products (20% of total volume), and sperm
What sugar does semen contain? Where does it come from?
Fructose, which comes from the seminal vesicles
What mineral does semen contain? Where does it come from?
Zinc, which comes from the prostate gland