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Flashcards in research Deck (49):
1

What is a directional hypothesis?

Participants A will be better at DV than ps B

2

Non directional hypothesis...

There will be a significant difference

3

What does operationalise mean?

You make variables clear and measurable, this is important to make variables in a form that can be tested

4

Null hypothesis

There will be no difference

5

What is a situational variable?

aspects of the research situation that may influence the DV

6

What are experimenter variables?

Effects of the experimenters expectations which are communicated to the ps intentionally or unintentionally

7

What are participant variables

Aspects of the ps characteristics which might influence the DV

8

What are confounding variables?

Variable that is not the IV but varies systematically, therefore may cause the DV to change

9

How might experimenters control the effects of demand characteristics?

Double blind techniques, involve confederates that can help control the situation

10

What is order effect?

Extraneous Variable arising from the order in which conditions are presented e.g fatigue effect

11

What is counterbalancing?

An experimental technique used to overcome order effects, ensures each condition is tested in equal amounts

12

Lab experiment

Experiment carried out in controlled setting

Strengths- high internal validity
Weaknesses- low ecological validity

13

Field experiment

Controlled experiment conducted OUTSIDE a lab , IV is still manipulated by experimenter

Strengths- higher ecological validity and realism, more natural and representative
Weaknesses- less control of extraneous variables and more time consuming and have ethical issues as some may not be aware they are being observed

14

Natural experiment

Investigates relationship between IV and DV in natural environment

Strengths- allows research where IV can't be manipulated for ethical or practical reasons, high ecological validity

Weaknesses- casual conclusions can't be drawn because IV is not changed there may be individual differences

15

Quasi experiment

IV is naturally occurring but DV may be experimented in a lab

Strengths- allows comparison between types of ppl

WeAknesses- participants may be aware they are being studied
DV may be artificial reducing ecological validity

16

What is independent groups?

Two groups are used, one for each condition

Strengths- only requires one set for one condition

Weaknesses- researcher cannot control the effects of p variables

17

Matched participants

Two groups are matched to be as similar as possible

Strengths- lower risk of demand characteristics
Fewer ps variables
Weaknesses- very time consuming, impossible to control all ps variables

18

Repeated measures

One group of ps used in both conditions

Strengths- requires few ps, reduces effects of individual differences

Weaknesses- order effects may occur and demand characteristics

19

Internal reliability

assesses consistency of results, control and realism

20

external reliability

the extent to which a measure varies from one use to another, generalisation to other situations

21

Why might and experiment often lack ecological validity?

It may not be appropriate to generalise it, especially to every day life

22

What is the issue with informed consent and how can we deal with it?

May give away aims

Retrospective consent

23

Issue with confidentiality and privacy

Difficult to guarantee because it's unpredictable

Can stop study

24

Naturalistic observation

Everything is left as it is normally in an everyday setting

High in ecological validity as the participants are unaware

Realistic

May not have consent and little control

25

Controlled observation

Researcher regulates aspects of the environment, useful for focusing on certain behaviour

Unnatural environment

Lacks validity as behaviour is less natural

26

Covert observation

Participants are unaware therefore it's more natural, however there are ethical issues

27

Overt observation

Participants are aware that they are being observed, this is less natural


Awareness is not an issue

28

Participant observation

Participant is part of a group being observed, may provide better insights

Issues of participant awareness

29

Non participant observation

More objective, not part of a group

30

Observation design: structured

A system is used enabling the observer to be more objective rather than being overwhelmed by information

31

Unstructured design

Useful when observing behaviour for the first time, observer records everything


32

Behavioural checklist

Dividing a behaviour into a subset of specific and operationalised behaviour

33

Time sampling design

An observational technique in which the observer records behaviour in a given time frame

34

Event sampling

Observational technique in which a count is kept of the number of times a certain behaviour occurs

35

Self report technique

Any method which states their opinions on thoughts for example with questionnaires or interviews


Access to what people think and feel

lacks validity as some people don't know what they feel

36

Structured interviews

Pre determined question, face to face


Can be easily repeated so answers can be easily compared so easier to analyse

May be interviewer bias

37

Unstructured interview


New questions are developed throughout the interview



More information can be obtained than in structured

Require interviewers with more skills therefore are more expensive to produce

38

Questionnaires

Designed to collect information about a topic, they are always predetermined

It can be distributed to a large number of people quickly and cheaply

Respondents may be more willing to give personal information

only people who have the time fill them in, answers may not be truthful

39

Closed questions

Questions that have a predetermined range of answers

Answers are easy to analyse

Forced to select answers that don't reflex their real thoughts

40

Open questions

Respondents provide their own answers


Can gain new insights

Less literate respondents may find it difficult to answer

41

Qualitative data

Non numerical data

42

quantitative data

Data in numbers

43

What is a case study?

Depth study on one person or a small group, they are longitudinal meaning they occur over long periods of time

44

strengths of case studies.

Provides detailed info

Provides insight for further research

Permits investigation of otherwise impractical or unethical situations

45

Weaknesses of case studies

Can't generalise to a wider population

Researchers own subjective feeling may influence the case study

Difficult to replicate

Time consuming

46

What is dispersion?

How 'spread out' data is

47

What does standard deviation tell you?

On average how close to the mean all of your scores are, the higher the standard deviation the more variation you have in your data

48

Primary data

Researcher has control over data

Expensive process

49

Secondary data

It's simpler to access someone's data if cheaper and less time is needed

Data may not fit the needs of the study