Flashcards in research Deck (49):
What is a directional hypothesis?
Participants A will be better at DV than ps B
Non directional hypothesis...
There will be a significant difference
What does operationalise mean?
You make variables clear and measurable, this is important to make variables in a form that can be tested
There will be no difference
What is a situational variable?
aspects of the research situation that may influence the DV
What are experimenter variables?
Effects of the experimenters expectations which are communicated to the ps intentionally or unintentionally
What are participant variables
Aspects of the ps characteristics which might influence the DV
What are confounding variables?
Variable that is not the IV but varies systematically, therefore may cause the DV to change
How might experimenters control the effects of demand characteristics?
Double blind techniques, involve confederates that can help control the situation
What is order effect?
Extraneous Variable arising from the order in which conditions are presented e.g fatigue effect
What is counterbalancing?
An experimental technique used to overcome order effects, ensures each condition is tested in equal amounts
Experiment carried out in controlled setting
Strengths- high internal validity
Weaknesses- low ecological validity
Controlled experiment conducted OUTSIDE a lab , IV is still manipulated by experimenter
Strengths- higher ecological validity and realism, more natural and representative
Weaknesses- less control of extraneous variables and more time consuming and have ethical issues as some may not be aware they are being observed
Investigates relationship between IV and DV in natural environment
Strengths- allows research where IV can't be manipulated for ethical or practical reasons, high ecological validity
Weaknesses- casual conclusions can't be drawn because IV is not changed there may be individual differences
IV is naturally occurring but DV may be experimented in a lab
Strengths- allows comparison between types of ppl
WeAknesses- participants may be aware they are being studied
DV may be artificial reducing ecological validity
What is independent groups?
Two groups are used, one for each condition
Strengths- only requires one set for one condition
Weaknesses- researcher cannot control the effects of p variables
Two groups are matched to be as similar as possible
Strengths- lower risk of demand characteristics
Fewer ps variables
Weaknesses- very time consuming, impossible to control all ps variables
One group of ps used in both conditions
Strengths- requires few ps, reduces effects of individual differences
Weaknesses- order effects may occur and demand characteristics
assesses consistency of results, control and realism
the extent to which a measure varies from one use to another, generalisation to other situations
Why might and experiment often lack ecological validity?
It may not be appropriate to generalise it, especially to every day life
What is the issue with informed consent and how can we deal with it?
May give away aims
Issue with confidentiality and privacy
Difficult to guarantee because it's unpredictable
Can stop study
Everything is left as it is normally in an everyday setting
High in ecological validity as the participants are unaware
May not have consent and little control
Researcher regulates aspects of the environment, useful for focusing on certain behaviour
Lacks validity as behaviour is less natural
Participants are unaware therefore it's more natural, however there are ethical issues
Participants are aware that they are being observed, this is less natural
Awareness is not an issue
Participant is part of a group being observed, may provide better insights
Issues of participant awareness
Non participant observation
More objective, not part of a group
Observation design: structured
A system is used enabling the observer to be more objective rather than being overwhelmed by information
Useful when observing behaviour for the first time, observer records everything
Dividing a behaviour into a subset of specific and operationalised behaviour
Time sampling design
An observational technique in which the observer records behaviour in a given time frame
Observational technique in which a count is kept of the number of times a certain behaviour occurs
Self report technique
Any method which states their opinions on thoughts for example with questionnaires or interviews
Access to what people think and feel
lacks validity as some people don't know what they feel
Pre determined question, face to face
Can be easily repeated so answers can be easily compared so easier to analyse
May be interviewer bias
New questions are developed throughout the interview
More information can be obtained than in structured
Require interviewers with more skills therefore are more expensive to produce
Designed to collect information about a topic, they are always predetermined
It can be distributed to a large number of people quickly and cheaply
Respondents may be more willing to give personal information
only people who have the time fill them in, answers may not be truthful
Questions that have a predetermined range of answers
Answers are easy to analyse
Forced to select answers that don't reflex their real thoughts
Respondents provide their own answers
Can gain new insights
Less literate respondents may find it difficult to answer
Non numerical data
Data in numbers
What is a case study?
Depth study on one person or a small group, they are longitudinal meaning they occur over long periods of time
strengths of case studies.
Provides detailed info
Provides insight for further research
Permits investigation of otherwise impractical or unethical situations
Weaknesses of case studies
Can't generalise to a wider population
Researchers own subjective feeling may influence the case study
Difficult to replicate
What is dispersion?
How 'spread out' data is
What does standard deviation tell you?
On average how close to the mean all of your scores are, the higher the standard deviation the more variation you have in your data
Researcher has control over data