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Flashcards in Research Exam Deck (28)
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1

What is the Hierarchy of Evidence?

1. N of 1 RCT
2. Multiple patient randomized trials
3. Observational studies
4. Basic research
5. Clinical experience

2

What are the 3 ways to use medical literature?

1. Staying alert to important new evidence
2. Problem solving
3. Asking background (novice) and foreground (expert) questions

3

What does PICO stand for?

Patient
Interventions
Comparison
Outcome

4

What does PECO stand for?

Population
Exposure
Comparison
Outcome

5

What is apprasial?

How serious is the risk of bias and what are the results

6

What are the four domains of practice?

Diagnosis
Prognosis
Intervention
Harm

7

What is evidence-based practice?

integration of best research evidence, clinical expertise and pt values

8

What are the 6 steps of EBM Method?

1. Acknowledge something I know
2. Formulate PICO
3. Search databases
4. Select best available evidence
5. Integrate evidence with clinical practice and pt values
6. Periodically evaluate self

9

What are the 3 fundamentals of EBM?

Optimal clinical decision making
Guidance
Evidence alone is never sufficient

10

What does SORT stand for?

Strength-of- Recommendation Taxonomy

11

SORT = A

consistent, good quality pt oriented evidence

12

SORT= B

Inconsistent or limited quality pt oriented evidence

13

SORT= C

consensus, disease oriented evidence, usual practice, expert opinion, or case series for studies of dx, tx, prevention or screening.

14

How many levels of evidence is there?

1-5

15

What are the 5 types of foreground questions?

Therapy
Harm
Ddx
Dx
Prognosis

16

What study is more common?

observational cohort study

17

What stats are seen in cohort studies?

incidence

18

What stats are seen in cross-sectional studies?

prevalence

19

What study design is good for rare diseases?

case-control

20

What is sensitivity

probability a person WITH a dz will test +

21

What is specificity?

probability a person WITHOUT a dz will test -

22

A NEG result from a highly senstive test will what?

RULE OUT the disease

23

A POS result from a highly specific test will what?

RULE IN the disease

24

PLR should be over ? is significant?

5

25

NLR should be under ? is significant?

26

What is a positive likelihood ratio?

always >1

27

What is a negative likelihood ratio?

always < 1

28

A likelihood ratio ? means the test is useless?

1