Resp Basics Flashcards Preview

RESP SYSTEM DEN303 > Resp Basics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Resp Basics Deck (39)
Loading flashcards...
1

Features of an inspiratory wheeze?

Monophonic
upper airways
tracheal tumour/TB

2

Features of expiratory wheeze?

Polyphonic
Bronchoconstriction
Asthma

3

What is obstructive lung disease?

Narrowing of airways that prevents outflow from the lungs for gas exchange

4

Types of obstructive lung disease? Features?

Asthma - reversible airway obstruction - mast cell degranulation of histamine

CODP - Irreversible airway obstruction, long term smoking damage

5

What is SOB?

Difficulty breathing - use of accessory muscles and increased breathing rate
- 'dyspnoea'

6

What make SOB worse?

Blood loss
Ventilation problem - Choking
Heart failure

7

Causes of SOB?

Lung problem:
- Asthma
- COPD
- Pulmonary fibrosis
- Interstitial lung disease
- Pneumonia

Heart problem:
- Failure = inadequate O2 supply
- MI

Blood problem:
- Anaemia (low Hb = low O2)
- Diabetic ketoacidosis = fast breathing = retention of metabolic acid from ketones

Joint cardiac and resp problems:
- Anxiety - fight/flight, hyperventilation, tachycardia
- PE - ventilation/perfusion problem

8

What is the normal respiratory rate?

12-16 breaths/min

9

What resp rate indicates tachypnoea?

20 breaths/min

10

Criteria of an acute severe asthma attack?

Resp rate over 25/30 per min
Peak flow is 50% below expected
Cannot complete sentences
Hr >110/min

11

When does an asthma attack become life threatening?

PEF <33%
SpO2<92%
Cyanosis
Exhaustion

12

What is FEV1?

Forced expiratory volume over the 1st second of breathing out

13

What is FVC?

Forced vital capacity = vol of air that can be forcibly blown out after a full insp

14

What is the normal FEV1/FVC?

0.8 or more

15

What is the FEV1/FVC for obstructive disease?
What indicates asthma?

0.7 or less
Asthma needs to demo reversibility - give bronchodilator and repeat (if improves FEV1/FVC = asthmatic)

16

How to measure breathing?

Spirometer = measures volume breathed out in one forced breath (FVC)
Peak flow meter = breath out as far as you can as fast (how fast you breathe)

17

How does an asthmatic's breathing differ?

Cannot breathe out fast = peak flow (and FEV1) is lower but FVC is same

18

What is a spirometer?

Measures volume of air breathed out in one forced breath (FVC)
(how much air)
Helps diagnose and monitor lung conditions
Compare results to someone their age, height and sex

19

What is a peak flow meter?

Measures how fast someone can breathe out (PEF)
(how fast)
Helps diagnose asthma
Use at home twice daily when trying to diagnose asthma

20

Characteristics of a restricted disease?

Lower FVC (lower vol)
FEV1 = same

21

Inhalers: What do relievers do? Examples?

Manage attacks
Dilate bronchi to normal
Short acting beta agonists
Salbutamol
Ipratropium bromide

22

Inhalers: What do preventers do? Examples?

Do not relieve attacks
Decrease number of attacks
Long acting beta agonists
Steroids - Beclometasone, budesonide, fluticasone

23

What disorders require inhalers?

COPD and asthma

24

What is resp failure I?

<8KPa PaO2
Low/normal PaCO2
Caused by pneumonia, asthma
Tx - give O2

25

What is resp failure II?

<8PKa PaO2
>6KPa PaCO2
Caused by overdose, trauma, COPD, neuromuscular
Tx - give O2, care in chronic

26

What drives normal breathing?

CO2 as adapting receptor (increase CO2 = breathe faster)

27

What drives breathing in COPD?

O2 = non-adapting factor = lack of O2 to tissues

28

Define COPD

Airway obstruction as bronchial tubes inflamed = trapped air in lungs = decrease FVC and low FEV1
= FEV1/FVC = less than 70%

29

How to calculate if smoking is significant?

Cigarettes a day x number of years
Divided by 20
If more than 10PYH = significant

30

Define asthma

Reversible airway obstruction due to crosslinking of receptor bound IgE antibodies = mast cell degranulation of histamine =
- Mucus hypersecretion
- Mucus plugging
- Mucosal oedema
- Bronchoconstriction