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BIOL UNIT 3 mrs thomas > Respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiration Deck (26)
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1

Name 3 cellular activities that require ATP energy

Muscle contraction
Protein synthesis
Active transport

2

Describe 3 advantages of ATP for its function

It is soluble and easily transported around the cell
An immediate source of energy as only one enzyme is needed to hydrolyse it
Releases energy in useable amounts that are matched closely to the energy required in coupled reaction

3

In aerobic respiration what are the ways in which ATP can be synthesised and describe them

Substrate level phos > where an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate directly to ADP with no involvement of the ETC

Oxidative Phos where glucose is oxidised in a series of redox reactions that provide the energy to synthesise ATP. Oxygen must be present as the TEA

4

Explain how ADP is involved in making energy available for cells

ADP combined with Pi( an inorganic phosphate) to produce ATP, this reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ATPsynthetase. In order for ATP to release energy the terminal phosphate group is hydrolysed releasing 30.6KJmol-1 of energy. This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ATPase

5

What is the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration

Oxygen

6

Draw and label a mitochondria

Check

7

What is the origin of the electrons that are passed alone the electron transport chain

Hydrogen atoms, which split to form H+ and E-

8

Why is SLP referred to as the simplest and oldest way to make ATP

Has no involvement of the ETC, no oxygen is needed and needs no pumps or carriers

9

Why does the diameter of the mitochondria not exceed 10 um

Because the diffusion pathway for O2 and CO2 must be as short as possible to be efficient

10

Why does the concentration of oxygen fall sometimes

Because oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor, it combines with H+ and E- to form water so the concentration of pure oxygen falls

11

What is produced in glycolysis

4 ATP and NADH2

12

How is reduced NAD used in aerobic respiration

Supplies high energy electrons to the ETC and protons to the proton pumps in the ETC

13

How is reduced NAD used in anaerobic respiration

Reduces pyruvate to lactic acid

14

Where does the Krebs cycle occur and why here

In the mitochondrial matrix because the enzyme required for the Krebs cycle are located here

15

Explain the process of Krebs cycle

Acetyl CoA enter the cycle and combines with a 4C acid to form a 6C compound
The 6C acid is dehydrogenated, making NADH2 to regenerate the 4C acid
(ATP is also made here by SLP)
The 4C acid can combine with more acetyl coA and the cycle is repeated

16

Why is it important that the 4C acid is regenerated in the Krebs cycle

In order for it to combine with Acetyl coA, to prevent it from accumulating

17

Explain why the overal count of ATP is not always 38

ATP is used to move pyruvate, ADP NADH2and FADH2 across the mitochondrial membrane
The proton gradient may be compromised by proton leakage across the inner mitochondrial membrane rather than passing through ATP synthetase
Molecules may also leak through the membrane preventing ATP from being generated

18

Where is the ETC located

On the cristae of the inner mitochondrial membrane

19

Name the molecules that show net movement into the mitochondrion

Pyruvate
CO2
o2
ADP+pi
NADH2

20

Name the molecules that sow net movement out of the the mitochondria

H20
ATP
NAD

21

Explain why anaerobic respiration yields less ATP than aerobic

Anaerobic is the incomplete breakdown of glucose only producing 2 molecules of ATP per glucose molecule as energy still remains in lactate and ethanol, and oxygen does not act as the terminal electron acceptor

22

Describe the process of anaerobic respiration in animal cells

Pyruvate becomes the terminal electron acceptor, where it is reduced and accepts the H+ from NADH2 and is converted into lactate

23

State the way in which anaerobic respiration in a yeast cell differs from that in the animal cell

In yeast cells ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced in animals lactate is produced

24

Which part of aerobic respiration can lead to greater ATP production

Krebs cycle

25

Give a reason why ATP is used in the process of glycolysis

ATP activates glucose to convert into hexose biphosphate by accepting the Pi from the ATP

26

What provides the electrons in respiration

NADH2