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Flashcards in Respiration Deck (18):
1

Aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Aerobic:
O2 + More ATP produced + mitochondria
Anaerobic
No O2 + Less ATP + in the cytoplasm + only glycolysis + produces lactic acid

2

Aerobic Respiration 4 stages

Glycolysis = cytoplasm
Link Reaction = Inner membrane of mitochondria
Krebs cycle = Matrix of mitochondria
Electron Transport Chain = In Cristae on enzymes

3

Glycolysis

See Book diagram
Converts large glucose molecules to smaller ones which can be converted into pyruvate and transported into mitochondria
2ATP are needed to phosphorylate glucose
Phosphorylated glucose (hexose bisphosphate) immediately splits into 2 3C Tripose phosphates
TP is oxidised to pyruvate by NAD forming NADH. A total of 4 ADP formed through substrate level phosphorylation

4

End products of Glycolysis?

2ATP (net gain)
2 NADH
2 pyruvate

5

Link reaction

See book diagram
Pyruvate crosses the mitochondrial membrane into the matrix
Pyruvate oxidised by NAD forming NADH
Pyruvate is decarboxylated forming CO2
Resulting 2 carbon molecule is picked up by co-enzyme A to from Acetyl CoA

6

Krebs Cycle

See book diagram
Occurs in matrix
Acetyl CoA enters krebs cycle and combines with axalocetane
Forms Citrate (6C)
Citrate undergoes 2 decarboxylation reactions removing 2 CO2s + a series of oxidation reactions
3NAD --> 3 reduced NAD (NADH +H+)
FAD --> reduced FAD (FADH2)
After first decarboxylation a 5C molecule is made
ATP is produced as a result of substrate-level phosphorylation
Results of this series of reactions is the production of 4C oxaloacetate - cycle goes round again

7

Products of Krebs cycle

4x CO2 by decarboxylation
6x NADH by redox
2x FADH2 by redox
2x ATP by substrate level phosphorylation

8

Electron transport chain

Cristae
NADH+, H+ and FADH2 are dehydrogenated releasing H+ and e-
e-s pass down the complex of proteins (ETC) releasing energy as they do
Used to pump H+ against their concentration gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
H+ (proton) gradient created
H+ move through ATP synthase down the concentration gradient forming ATP (ADP + Pi = ATP)
O2 acts as a terminal electron acceptor binding with H+ and e- to from H20

9

Anaerobic respiration in animal

Occurs in cytoplasm in absence of O2
2ATP are needed to phosphorylate glucose
Phosphorylated glucose immediately splits into 2 3C Tripose phosphates
TP is oxidised to pyruvate by NAD forming NADH and 2 ATP forming
Net gain of 2 ATP
Pyruvate further reduced by NADH to NAD forming Lactate

10

Anaerobic respiration in yeast

Occurs in cytoplasm in absence of O2
2ATP are needed to phosphorylate glucose
Phosphorylated glucose immediately splits into 2 3C Tripose phosphates
TP is oxidised to pyruvate by NAD forming NADH and 2 ATP forming
Pyruvate is decarboxylated - loss of CO2
Ethanal formed
NADH to NAD
Ethanol formed

11

Anaerobic respiration regeneration

Production of lactate or ethanol regenerates oxidised NAD
Glycolysis can continue when there isn't much oxygen so a small amount of ATP can still be produced

12

How many ATP can be made from one glucose molecule?

32

13

How can ATP production be affected?

Mitochondrial diseases:
Affect proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation or the krebs cycle function, reducing ATP production
May cause anaerobic respiration to increase - ATP shortage
May cause lots of lactate to form - muscle fatigue or weakness

14

Other upstarts in aerobic respiration?

Fatty acids from lipids
Amino acids

15

Investigating Factors affecting respiration in single-celled organisms - aerobic respiration?

Decide on different temperatures for dependent variable
Known volume and concentration of substrate solution in a test tube + buffer solution to keep pH constant
Place in water bath set at one of the temperatures
Leave for 10 mins for substrate to stabilise
Add known mass of dried yeast and stir for 2 mins
When dissolved add a bung on test tube attached to a gas syringe which is set to zero
Measure CO2 formed
At regular intervals measure CO2 released
Control with no yeast
Repeat at different temperatures
Find mean rate of CO2 production

16

Investigating Factors affecting respiration in single-celled organisms - anaerobic respiration?

Known volume and concentration of substrate solution in a test tube + buffer solution to keep pH constant
Place in water bath set at one of the temperatures
Leave for 10 mins for substrate to stabilise
Add known mass of dried yeast and stir for 2 mins
When dissolved add liquid paraffin down the inside of the test tube so it completely covers the surface of the liquid - stops oxygen
add a bung on test tube attached to a gas syringe which is set to zero
Measure CO2 formed
At regular intervals measure CO2 released
Control with no yeast
Repeat at different temperatures
Find mean rate of CO2 production

17

What is RQ?

Respiratory quotient
Amount of CO2 produced/ amount of O2 used

18

If the RQ is over 1 then what is happening?

Anaerobic respiration, more CO2 is being produced than O2 is being taken in