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A2 Biology- Unit 3 > Respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiration Deck (11)
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1

Explain glycolysis

Glucose phosphorylated using 2 ATP to form hexose phosphate
Hexose phosphate forms two mols of triose phosphate
Each TP loses 2H and reduces NAD
Two ATP produced
Pyruvate (3C) produced

2

Explain link reaction

Pyruvate is decarboxylated (reduced NAD) and dehydrogenated
Actyl attaches to coenzyme A to produce acetyl coenzyme A

3

Explain krebs cycle

Acetyl coA binds with oxoloacetate forming a 6C compound
NAD is reduced, decarboxylation
5 carbon compound forms, NAD reduced decarboxylation and 1 ATP produced
4 carbon compound forms, FAD reduced
4 carbon compound then undergoes dehydrogenation to reduce NAD to reform oxoloactetate

4

What are the products of krebs

1 coA
2 4C mols
4 CO2
2ATP
6 reduced NAD
2 reduced FAD

5

What happens in the electron transport chain?

NADH+ is associated with 3 proton pumps and release 3 ATP
FADH+ is associated with 2 proton pumps and release 2 ATP
At the end, electrons and protons combine with oxygen to form water. Without this there would be an accumulation and a proton gradient for chemiosmosis wouldn’t occur. Cell would die quickly

6

What does cyanide do?

Non competitive inhibitor of the final electron carrier

7

Anaerobic respiration on animals

Glycolysis continues, pyruvate becomes the final electron acceptor. Lactic acid forms

8

anaerobic respiration in yeast

Puruvate is decarboxylated, forming ethanal
Reduced NaD passes H+ to ethanal to form ethanol

9

How many ATP mols are produced during chemiosmosis?

34

10

How are lipids used for alternative respiratory substrates ?

Hydrolysed into fatty acids and glycerol
Glycerol converts to triose phosphate

11

How are proteins used for alternative respiratory substrates ?

Hudrolysed into amino acids which are deaminated in the liver forming keto acid and ammonia
Some keto acids are fed into glycolysis via pyruvate or into krebs via acetyl coA