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A2 Biology- Unit 3 > Respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiration Deck (11)
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Explain glycolysis

Glucose phosphorylated using 2 ATP to form hexose phosphate
Hexose phosphate forms two mols of triose phosphate
Each TP loses 2H and reduces NAD
Two ATP produced
Pyruvate (3C) produced


Explain link reaction

Pyruvate is decarboxylated (reduced NAD) and dehydrogenated
Actyl attaches to coenzyme A to produce acetyl coenzyme A


Explain krebs cycle

Acetyl coA binds with oxoloacetate forming a 6C compound
NAD is reduced, decarboxylation
5 carbon compound forms, NAD reduced decarboxylation and 1 ATP produced
4 carbon compound forms, FAD reduced
4 carbon compound then undergoes dehydrogenation to reduce NAD to reform oxoloactetate


What are the products of krebs

1 coA
2 4C mols
4 CO2
6 reduced NAD
2 reduced FAD


What happens in the electron transport chain?

NADH+ is associated with 3 proton pumps and release 3 ATP
FADH+ is associated with 2 proton pumps and release 2 ATP
At the end, electrons and protons combine with oxygen to form water. Without this there would be an accumulation and a proton gradient for chemiosmosis wouldn’t occur. Cell would die quickly


What does cyanide do?

Non competitive inhibitor of the final electron carrier


Anaerobic respiration on animals

Glycolysis continues, pyruvate becomes the final electron acceptor. Lactic acid forms


anaerobic respiration in yeast

Puruvate is decarboxylated, forming ethanal
Reduced NaD passes H+ to ethanal to form ethanol


How many ATP mols are produced during chemiosmosis?



How are lipids used for alternative respiratory substrates ?

Hydrolysed into fatty acids and glycerol
Glycerol converts to triose phosphate


How are proteins used for alternative respiratory substrates ?

Hudrolysed into amino acids which are deaminated in the liver forming keto acid and ammonia
Some keto acids are fed into glycolysis via pyruvate or into krebs via acetyl coA