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Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (10):

Describe the difference between the structure of the bronchi and the bronchioles

Bronchi: Cartilage, SM, epithelia, cilia, goblet cells, mucus and endocrine secreting glands 

Bronchioles: Single layer of ciliated cells & clara cells which produce a surfactant-like substance 


What instructions would you give to explain how to use a spirometry machine?

Fill your lungs as much as possible 

Tight seal completly around the mouth piece 

Blow the air out as fast as possible 

Keep blowing for as long as possible 


Describe the FEV1/FVC ratio for someone with restrictive lung disease

Restrictive: FEV1/FVC > 80% 

Smaller lung volumes with most of the air being exhaled in the first second this means that FVC is proportionatly lower aswell 


Describe the FEV1/FVC ratio for someone with obstructive lung disease

Obstructive lung disease: FEV1/FVC <80% 

Narrow breathing tubes 'breathing out through a straw' this makes FEV1 much lower as they can't get the air out quickly. 

But they have a normal lung volume making FVC proportionatly higher and the ratio lower


What is the transfer co-efficient and how does it work?

The transfer co-efficient 1 

Measures the ability of O2 to diffuse across alveolar membrane 

You inspire low dose of CO, hold for 10s and then the gas transfer is measures. - CO irreversibly binds 

Low in: severe asthma, fibrosing alveolitis & anaemia 

High in: pulmonary haemorrhage 


How do we group the influenza viruses?

Group influenza virsus on the H&N profiles 

Haemagglutinin - getting into cells 

Neuraminidase - getting out of cells 


What are the serious complications associated with an influenza infection?

Bacterial pneumonia 

Viral pneumonia 


Which high risk groups would be eligable for an influenza vaccine?

Chronic cardiac/pulmonary/renal/metabolic disease




Why are some poeple allergic?

The allergens may not be harmful - grass 

Falty recognition processes 

Increased IgE production