Describe the difference between the structure of the bronchi and the bronchioles
Bronchi: Cartilage, SM, epithelia, cilia, goblet cells, mucus and endocrine secreting glands
Bronchioles: Single layer of ciliated cells & clara cells which produce a surfactant-like substance
What instructions would you give to explain how to use a spirometry machine?
Fill your lungs as much as possible
Tight seal completly around the mouth piece
Blow the air out as fast as possible
Keep blowing for as long as possible
Describe the FEV1/FVC ratio for someone with restrictive lung disease
Restrictive: FEV1/FVC > 80%
Smaller lung volumes with most of the air being exhaled in the first second this means that FVC is proportionatly lower aswell
Describe the FEV1/FVC ratio for someone with obstructive lung disease
Obstructive lung disease: FEV1/FVC <80%
Narrow breathing tubes 'breathing out through a straw' this makes FEV1 much lower as they can't get the air out quickly.
But they have a normal lung volume making FVC proportionatly higher and the ratio lower
What is the transfer co-efficient and how does it work?
The transfer co-efficient 1
Measures the ability of O2 to diffuse across alveolar membrane
You inspire low dose of CO, hold for 10s and then the gas transfer is measures. - CO irreversibly binds
Low in: severe asthma, fibrosing alveolitis & anaemia
High in: pulmonary haemorrhage
How do we group the influenza viruses?
Group influenza virsus on the H&N profiles
Haemagglutinin - getting into cells
Neuraminidase - getting out of cells
What are the serious complications associated with an influenza infection?
Which high risk groups would be eligable for an influenza vaccine?
Chronic cardiac/pulmonary/renal/metabolic disease
Why are some poeple allergic?
The allergens may not be harmful - grass
Falty recognition processes
Increased IgE production