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Body logistics-Alaa > Respiratory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Deck (34):
1

Describe the components of Respiratory System (exterior to interior)

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2

anatomy of lungs

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3

Respiratory Airways of the Head and Neck (anatomy)

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4

how can u locate the 2nd rib? & why is the inferior aspect of each lung is curved upwards?

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5

describe the shape of the diaphragm

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6

what types of membranes does the respiratory system contain?

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7

what things can the pleural cavity be filled with? & what is the term for each?

 

Air - (pneumothorax)
Blood - (haemothorax)
Pus - (empyema)
A watery transudate or exudate (pleural effusion)

8

if a patient has pneumothorax, how can u drain the fluid? (presise location) why is the location crcuial in this situation?

inserting a wide-bore needle through an intercostal space (usually the 7th posteriorly)

 

Below the 7th intercostal space there is a danger of penetrating the diaphragm.

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9

how is cancer of the lung related to the diaphragm?

PHRENIC NERVE!

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10

describe the error occured here?

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11

what can cancer in the apex of the lung cause?

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12

what is a pancoast tumor?

Tumor in the APEX of the LUNG

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13

A pancoast tumor can impinge on sympathetic trunk.

what does this lead to?

horners syndrome

14

what is horners syndrome?

HORNY PAMELa

Ptosisdroppy eyelid

Anhidrosis> Cant sweat normally

Miosis > contricted pupil

Enopthalmos > posterior displacement of the eyeball within the orbit

Loss of ciliopsinal reflex

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15

Cancer of the lung can result in a hoarse voice, why?

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16

The walls of the passageways become _______ as their lumens decrease in diameter.

thinner

17

EPITHELIAL CHANGES IN THE RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM?

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18

the nasal cavitites is divinding into olfactory and non olfactory regions, describe the epithelium for each and types of cells or glands included

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19

what is purpose of "Bowman's Glands'?

Serous glands (Bowman’s glands) flush odorants from the epithelial surface.

and it makes mucous

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20

LABEL the larynx

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21

Each vocal cord, of the larynx, is lined by stratified squamous epithelium and contains: (2 structures)

- what is the function of the vocal cord?

- what contributes to the resonance of the voice?

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22

what contributes to the resonance of the voice?

The ventricles & ventricular folds

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23

which bronchus is more vertical than the other & what is the significance of this?

Right bronchus

foreign objects r most likely to lodge into this one

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24

how does the histology of the trachea differ from the primary bronchi?

in the primary bronchi, the cartilage rings and spiral muscle completely encircle the lumen

25

what changes occurs in the trachea with aging?

the c-shaped cartilaginous rings transform into BONE

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26

what r the secretions that r released from the epithelium and submucosal glands of the trachea & bronchi

mucins, serum, water, proteins, lysozomes (destroy bacteria), antiproteases (inactivate bacterial enzymes),

27

what changes occur in the tracheal epithelium in COPD?

goblet cell hyperplasia

smaller amount of ciliated cells

hypertrophy of the submucous glands

 

therefore there is MORE mucous and FEWER cilia

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30

 

Pulmonary arteries (PA) carry ____________

Bronchial arteries (BA) carry ______________

Pulmonary arteries (PA) carry deoxygenated blood.

Bronchial arteries (BA) carry oxygenated blood.

31

what type of epithelium lines lines most of the upper respiratory tract?

Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium

32

how manyml of blood does the pulmonary vasculature contain?

500 ml

33

Bronchiole has no cartilage or glands.

how can this be problematic?

because it allows these air passages to constrict and almost close down when smooth muscle contraction becomes excessive.

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34

bronchoconstriction can become excessive in asthma. explain

more difficulty with expiration than inspiration (during expiration the bronchial walls are no longer held open by the surrounding alveoli).