Describe the components of Respiratory System (exterior to interior)
anatomy of lungs
Respiratory Airways of the Head and Neck (anatomy)
how can u locate the 2nd rib? & why is the inferior aspect of each lung is curved upwards?
describe the shape of the diaphragm
what types of membranes does the respiratory system contain?
what things can the pleural cavity be filled with? & what is the term for each?
Air - (pneumothorax)
Blood - (haemothorax)
Pus - (empyema)
A watery transudate or exudate (pleural effusion)
if a patient has pneumothorax, how can u drain the fluid? (presise location) why is the location crcuial in this situation?
inserting a wide-bore needle through an intercostal space (usually the 7th posteriorly)
Below the 7th intercostal space there is a danger of penetrating the diaphragm.
how is cancer of the lung related to the diaphragm?
describe the error occured here?
what can cancer in the apex of the lung cause?
what is a pancoast tumor?
Tumor in the APEX of the LUNG
A pancoast tumor can impinge on sympathetic trunk.
what does this lead to?
what is horners syndrome?
Ptosis > droppy eyelid
Anhidrosis> Cant sweat normally
Miosis > contricted pupil
Enopthalmos > posterior displacement of the eyeball within the orbit
Loss of ciliopsinal reflex
Cancer of the lung can result in a hoarse voice, why?
The walls of the passageways become _______ as their lumens decrease in diameter.
EPITHELIAL CHANGES IN THE RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM?
yr pic alaa
the nasal cavitites is divinding into olfactory and non olfactory regions, describe the epithelium for each and types of cells or glands included
what is purpose of "Bowman's Glands'?
Serous glands (Bowman’s glands) flush odorants from the epithelial surface.
and it makes mucous
LABEL the larynx
Each vocal cord, of the larynx, is lined by stratified squamous epithelium and contains: (2 structures)
- what is the function of the vocal cord?
- what contributes to the resonance of the voice?
what contributes to the resonance of the voice?
The ventricles & ventricular folds
which bronchus is more vertical than the other & what is the significance of this?
foreign objects r most likely to lodge into this one
how does the histology of the trachea differ from the primary bronchi?
in the primary bronchi, the cartilage rings and spiral muscle completely encircle the lumen
what changes occurs in the trachea with aging?
the c-shaped cartilaginous rings transform into BONE
what r the secretions that r released from the epithelium and submucosal glands of the trachea & bronchi
mucins, serum, water, proteins, lysozomes (destroy bacteria), antiproteases (inactivate bacterial enzymes),
what changes occur in the tracheal epithelium in COPD?
goblet cell hyperplasia
smaller amount of ciliated cells
hypertrophy of the submucous glands
therefore there is MORE mucous and FEWER cilia
Pulmonary arteries (PA) carry ____________
Bronchial arteries (BA) carry ______________
Pulmonary arteries (PA) carry deoxygenated blood.
Bronchial arteries (BA) carry oxygenated blood.
what type of epithelium lines lines most of the upper respiratory tract?
Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
how manyml of blood does the pulmonary vasculature contain?
Bronchiole has no cartilage or glands.
how can this be problematic?
because it allows these air passages to constrict and almost close down when smooth muscle contraction becomes excessive.
bronchoconstriction can become excessive in asthma. explain
more difficulty with expiration than inspiration (during expiration the bronchial walls are no longer held open by the surrounding alveoli).