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USMLE (S1) Respiratory > Respiratory - Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory - Anatomy Deck (55)
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1
Q

Which six structures make up the conducting zone of the respiratory tree?

A

The nose, the pharynx, the trachea, the bronchi, the bronchioles, and the terminal bronchioles

2
Q

Name the four functions of the conducting zone of the respiratory tree.

A

The conducting zone brings air in and out, warms, humidifies, and filters air

3
Q

What type of muscle is found in the walls of the conducting airways?

A

Smooth muscle

4
Q

What anatomic area does the respiratory zone encompass and what is the major function?

A

The respiratory bronchioles, the alveolar ducts, and the alveoli all function in gas exchange

5
Q

Cartilage is present only in what two components of the respiratory tree?

A

Trachea and bronchi

6
Q

Which zone of the respiratory tree includes the anatomic dead space?

A

The conducting zone; by definition, dead space does not participate in gas exchange

7
Q

Goblet cells extend to the _____ (respiratory/terminal) bronchioles, whereas pseudostratified ciliated cells extend to the _____ (respiratory/terminal) bronchioles.

A

Terminal; respiratory

8
Q

What type of pneumocyte makes up 97% of alveolar surfaces?

A

Type I pneumocytes

9
Q

What type of pneumocyte makes up just 3% of pneumocytes?

A

Type II pneumocytes

10
Q

What are two important functions of type II pneumocytes?

A

To secrete surfactant and to serve as precursors to pneumocytes (both types I and II)

11
Q

What is dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and what is its function?

A

Surfactant, to decrease alveolar surface tension

12
Q

Which cells proliferate to repair the lungs after they have been damaged?

A

Type II pneumocytes; they are the precursors of both types of pneumocytes

13
Q

What feature of the pseudostratified columnar cells of the respiratory tract allow them to move mucus toward the mouth?

A

Their cilia

14
Q

What ratio of concentrations of which two molecules in amniotic fluid can be used as a marker of fetal lung maturity?

A

The lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio

15
Q

A lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio with what value is indicative of fetal lung maturity?

A

>2.0

16
Q

Histologically, while type I pneumocytes are _____ (cuboidal/squamous), type II pneumocytes are _____ (cuboidal/squamous).

A

Squamous; cuboidal

17
Q

What is the advantage of having thin squamous cells that line the alveoli?

A

Maximum gas exchange is permitted by thin cells

18
Q

Describe clara cells and their three functions.

A

Nonciliated columnar pneumocytes with granules that secrete a component of surfactant and degrade toxins and act as reserve cells

19
Q

Which cells are responsible for clearing debris that accumulates in the alveoli?

A

Macrophages

20
Q

In pulmonary gas exchange, _____ (carbon dioxide/oxygen) diffuses from the capillary lumen to the alveolar space, while _____ (carbon dioxide/oxygen) diffuses from the alveolar space to the capillary lumen.

A

Carbon dioxide; oxygen

21
Q

Surfactant is secreted from the lamellar bodies of ____ (type I/type II/clara cell) pneumocytes.

A

Type II

22
Q

An oxygen molecule is in the alveolus. In order, what cells will it cross to be able to bind to heme in the red blood cells?

A

To pass through the alveolar space to the capillary lumen, oxygen diffuses across the type I pneumocyte and then the endothelial cell

23
Q

A carbon dioxide molecule is in the red blood cell within the capillary lumen. In order, what cells will it cross before it is exhaled?

A

The majority of carbon dioxide will exit red blood cells as bicarbonate (in exchange for chloride), cross the endothelial cell, then the type I pneumocyte to enter the alveolar space

24
Q

Along with pneumocytes, which phagocytic cells can be found in the alveolar space?

A

Macrophages

25
Q

Each bronchopulmonary segment has what three structures in the center?

A

A tertiary bronchus and two arteries (remember: Arteries run with Airways)

26
Q

What two arteries are found in the center of each bronchopulmonary segment?

A

A bronchial artery and a pulmonary artery

27
Q

What two structures are found along the borders of each bronchopulmonary segment?

A

Veins and lymphatics

28
Q

Pulmonary _____ (arteries/veins) carry _____ (deoxygenated/oxygenated) blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

A

Arteries; deoxygenated

29
Q

How does pulmonary arterial pressure fluctuate depending on the stage of the cardiac cycle?

A

It does not fluctuate; elastic walls maintain relatively constant pulmonary arterial pressure during the cardiac cycle

30
Q
  1. How many lobes does the right lung have?
  2. How many does the left lung have?
A
  1. Three
  2. Two
31
Q

What structure does the left lung have that the right lung does not?

A

A lingula (remember: Left has the Lingula)

32
Q

In what lung is it more common to find an inhaled foreign body and why?

A

The right lung because the right main stem bronchus is wider and more vertical than the left

33
Q

Instead of a middle lobe, the left lung has a space that is occupied by what?

A

The heart

34
Q

Where is the pulmonary artery in relation to the bronchus within the right lung hilus?

A

Anterior (remember: RALS = Right Anterior; Left Superior)

35
Q

Where is the pulmonary artery in relation to the bronchus within the left lung hilus?

A

Superior (remember: RALS = Right Anterior; Left Superior)

36
Q

The oblique fissure divides which two lobes in the right lung? Left lung?

A

The middle and the inferior lobes; the superior and the inferior lobes

37
Q

The horizontal fissure of the right lung is at the level of the _____ rib.

A

Fourth

38
Q

In the posterior aspect of both the right and left lungs, the _____ (horizontal/oblique) fissure divides the superior and inferior lobes.

A

Oblique

39
Q

In the posterior aspect of the right and left lungs, the medial aspect of the oblique fissure is at the level of which vertebra?

A

T2

40
Q

While both the right and left lungs have a(n) _____ (oblique/horizontal) fissure, only the right lung has a(n) _____ (oblique/horizontal) fissure.

A

Oblique; horizontal

41
Q

A 5-year-old male presents after having aspirated a peanut while lying in bed. The peanut has most likely lodged in what portion of the lung?

A

The superior portion of right inferior lobe

42
Q

A 33-year-old male presents after having aspirated a steak tip while sitting at the dinner table. The steak tip has most likely lodged where?

A

The lower portion of right inferior lobe

43
Q

At what level does the inferior vena cava perforate the diaphragm?

A

T8 (remember: T8: vena cava [8 letters in vena cava])

44
Q

What two structures perforate the diaphragm at the level of T10?

A

The esophagus and the vagus

45
Q

At what level does the esophagus perforate the diaphragm?

A

T10 (remember: T10: (o)esophagus [10 letters in (o)esophagus])

46
Q

What three structures perforate the diaphragm at the level of T12?

A

The aorta, thoracic duct, and azygos vein; (remember: T12: aortic hiatus [12 letters in aortic hiatus])

47
Q

Neurons from vertebral levels _____, _____, and _____ come together to form the phrenic nerve, which innervates the diaphragm.

A

C3, C4, and C5 (remember: "C3, 4, 5 keeps the diaphragm alive.")

48
Q

Pain from the diaphragm can be referred to which anatomic region?

A

The shoulder

49
Q

Which tendon can be found on the inferior aspect of the diaphragm surrounding the caval and esophageal hiatuses?

A

The central tendon

50
Q

What mnemonic can be used to recall the levels at which certain anatomic structures perforate the diaphragm relates?

A

"I (IVC) ate (8) ten (10) eggs (esophagus) at (aorta) twelve (12)."

51
Q

During quiet breathing, what muscle is used for inspiration?

A

The diaphragm

52
Q

During quiet breathing, what muscle is used for expiration?

A

No muscles are used; the expiration of quiet breathing is passive

53
Q

During exercise, what three muscle groups are used for inspiration?

A

The external intercostals, the scalene muscles, and the sternomastoids

54
Q

Name the four abdominal wall muscle groups and the chest wall muscles used for expiration during exercise.

A

The rectus abdominus, the internal obliques, the external obliques, and the transversus abdominus; the internal intercostals

55
Q

While expiration during quiet breathing is _____ (active/passive), expiration during exercise is _____ (active/passive).

A

Passive; active