Are H1-blockers reversible or irreversible inhibitors?
List three clinical uses of first-generation H1-blockers.
To treat allergy and motion sickness and as a sleep aid
List three toxicities of first-generation H1-blockers.
Sedation, antimuscarinic, and anti-α-adrenergic symptoms
Loratadine, fexofenadine, cetirizine, and desloratadine are examples of what class of drugs?
What is the clinical use of second-generation H1-blockers?
What is the main difference between first- and second-generation H1-blockers with regard to their toxicities?
Second-generation H1-blockers are far less sedating because of decreased central nervous system entry
What are three first generation H1-blockers?
Diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, and chlorpheniramine
What are four second generation H1-blockers?
Loratadine, fexofenadine, cetirizine, and desloratadine
What two types of β-agonists are used to treat asthma?
Nonspecific β-agonists and β2-agonists
What is the mechanism of action of isoproterenol?
It relaxes bronchial smooth muscle through agonism of β2-adrenergic receptors
What is the adverse effect of isoproterenol?
Isoproterenol induces tachycardia through its agonism of what receptors?
What is the mechanism of action of albuterol?
Albuterol relaxes bronchial smooth muscle through its agonism of β2-adrenergic receptors
Is albuterol used as a controller medication or for relief of symptoms during exacerbations?
It is used for relief in acute asthma exacerbations
Salmeterol is a _____ (short/intermediate/long) -acting agent.
List two adverse effects of salmeterol.
Tremor and arrhythmia
What enzyme converts adenosine triphosphate to cAMP?
What enzyme is inhibited by β-receptor agonists? What is the effect?
Adenylyl cyclase; it increases the amount of cAMP
Theophylline falls into which class of drugs?
Methylxanthines; caffeine is also a member of the class
Theophylline likely causes _____ by inhibiting phosphodiesterase and increasing what molecule?
What is the effect on bronchial smooth muscle of increased cAMP concentration?
Decreased bronchial tone (ie, it causes bronchodilation)
The usage of what asthma drug is limited because of its narrow therapeutic index?
List two types of toxicity that theophylline can cause.
Cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity
In addition to inhibiting phosphodiesterase, theophylline also blocks endogenous _____ from inducing bronchoconstriction.
Ipratropium is an example of what class of drugs?
Does ipratropium cause a competitive or a noncompetitive receptor blockade?
By competitively blocking muscarinic receptors, ipratropium prevents endogenous _____ from inducing bronchoconstriction.
Cromolyn prevents what process from occurring?
The release of leukotrienes and histamine from mast cells
How is cromolyn used in the treatment of asthma?
Cromolyn is most effective when used as prophylaxis and cannot be used for acute symptoms
Name two corticosteroids commonly used to treat asthma.