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Flashcards in Respiratory Conditions Deck (30):
1

What is a congenital diaphragmatic hernia?

Bowel protrudes through a hole in the diaphragm and ends up beside the lungs (usually the left lung) The loops of bowel are sitting in the hemithorax and cause lung and pulmonary vascultature underdevelopment.

2

What causes bronchiolitis?

Respiratory synctycial virus

3

Cold like illness in 1 9 month years old followed by a dry cough, increasing breathlessness, wheeze and feeding difficulties.

Bronchiolitis

4

What causes whooping cough?

Caused by the gram negative bacterium bordatella pertussis

5

What is the treatment for whooping cough?

Macrolides - erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin

6

2 – 3 days of cold like symptoms, coughing bouts, inspiratory whoop

Whooping cough

7

Stridor, barking cough, hoarse voice mild fever and runny nose.

Croup

8

What causes croup?

Parainfluenza virus

9

What is the treatment for croup?

Oral prednisolone

10

Difficulty swallowing, drooling, fever, stridor, cyanosis. Septic and very unwell with fever.

Epiglottitis

11

What causes epiglottitis?

Haemophilus influenzae

12

What investigation do you order if you suspect epiglottitis?

Lateral cervical X Ray

13

What do you see on a lateral cervical X Ray for epiglottitis?

Thumbprint sign

14

What is the treatment for epiglottitis?

Endotracheal intubation
IV ceftriaxone
Steroids

15

Autosomal recessive inherited multisystem disease characterised by recurrent respiratory tract infections, pancreatic insufficiency, malabsoprtion and male infertility

Cystic fibrosis

16

What causes cystic fibrosis?

Defective CFTR gene on chromosome 7q. This endcodes for a cAMP dependant chlorine channel which regulates sodium and chlorine concentrations in exocrine secretions mainly in the lungs and pancreas. This loss of function mutation causes viscous secretions.

17

What is the most common mutation in CF?

F508

18

What is the investigation for a child who has a high probability of having asthma in order to confirm the diagnosis?

Start 6 weeks of inhaled corticosteroids (if the response is good then a diagnosis of asthma can be made)

19

Describe the management of asthma in children

Stage 1 : Inhaled beta agonists as required
Stage 2: Add in regular inhaled corticosteroids
Stage 3A: Regular inhaled steroids + LABA
Stage 3B: Add in leukotriene antagonists
Stage 4: High dose steroids

20

How do leukotriene receptor antagonists work?

Oppose the action of leukotrienes which are inflammatory mediators produced by the immune systme and promote bronchoconstriction, inflammation and mucus secretion.

21

What are examples of leukotriene receptor antagonists?

Montelukast

22

What is transient tachypnoea of the newborn?

A respiratory problem that occurs just after birth - consists of a period of rapid breathing and is likely to be due to amniotic fluid remaining in the lungs following birth.

23

How do you treat transient tachypnoea of the newborn?

Oxygen and antibiotics

24

A newborn baby has a respiratory rate of 70. You do a chest X ray and see hyperinflation of the lungs, flattening of the diaphram and fluid in the horizontal fissure of the right lung.

Transient tacchypnoea of the newborn.

25

Is transient tachypnoea of the newborn more common in babies born by vaginal delivery or C section?

C section

26

What is the treatment for an acute asthma attack in a child?

Oxygen
Nebulised salbutamol
Oral prednisolone
IV salbutamol
IV aminophylline
IV magnesium

27

What are the most common causative organisms for pneumonia in neonates?

Group B Strep
E Coli
Klebsiella
Staph aureus

28

What are the most common causative organisms for pneumonia in infants?

Strep pneumoniae
Chlamydia

29

What are the most common causative organisms for pneumonia in school age children?

Strep pneumoniae
Staph aureus
Group A Strep
Mycoplasma
Legionella

30

What is the empirical treatment for community acquired pneumonia in children?

Non Severe: Amoxicillin for 7 days.Co Amoxiclav if less than 1. (Clarithromycin if allergic)
Severe: Co Amoxiclav IV. Add in clarithromycin if atypical pneumonia or pertussis.