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Adult Health Nursing I > Respiratory Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Definitions Deck (79):
1

Apnea

A temporary cessation of breathing

2

Bronchophony

Abnormal increase in clarity of transmitted voice sounds heard when auscultating the lungs

3

Bronchoscopy

Direct examination of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi using an endoscope

4

Compliance

Measure of the force required to expand or inflate the lungs

5

Crackles

Soft, high-pitched, discontinuous popping sounds during inspiration caused by delayed reopening of the airways

6

Dyspnea

Subjective experience that describes difficulty breathing or shortness of breath

7

Egophony

Abnormal changes in tone of voice that is heard when auscultating the lungs

8

Fremitus

Vibrations of speech felt as tremors of the chest wall felt during palpation

9

Hemoptysis

Expectoration of blood from the respiratory tract

10

Hypoxemia

Decrease in arterial oxygen tension in the blood

11

Hypoxia

Decrease in oxygen supply to the tissues and cells

12

Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Temporary absence of breathing during sleep secondary to transient upper airway obstruction

13

Orthopnea

Inability to breathe easily except in an upright position

14

Oxygen Saturation

Percentage of hemoglobin that is bound to oxygen

15

Physiologic Dead Space

Portion of the tracheobronchial tree that does not participate in gas exchange

16

Pulmonary Diffusion

Exchange of gas molecules (oxygen and carbon dioxide) from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration

17

Pulmonary Perfusion

Blood flow through the pulmonary vasculature

18

Respiration

Gas exchange between atmospheric air and the blood and between the blood and cells of the body

19

Rhonchi

Low-pitched wheezing or snoring sound associated with partial airway obstruction, heard on chest auscultation

20

Stridor

Harsh, high-pitched sound heard on inspiration, usually without the need of a stethoscope, secondary to upper airway obstruction

21

Tidal Volume

Volume of air inspired and expired with each breath during normal breathing

22

Ventilation

Movement of air in and out of the airways

23

Wheezes

Continuous musical sounds associated with airway narrowing or partial obstruction

24

Whispered Pectoriloquy

Whispered sounds heard loudly and clearly upon thoracic auscultation

25

Airway Pressure Release Ventilation

Mode of mechanical ventilation that allows unrestricted, spontaneous breaths throughout the ventilatory cycle

On inspiration the patient receives a preset level of continuous positive airway pressure, and the pressure is periodically released to aid in expiration

26

Assist-Control (A/C) Ventilation

Mode of mechanical ventilation in which the patient's breathing pattern may trigger the ventilator to deliver a preset tidal volume

In the absence of spontaneous breathing, the machine delivers a controlled breath at a preset minimum rate and tidal volume

27

Chest Drainage System

The use of a chest tube and closed drainage system to re-expand the lung and remove excess air, fluid, and blood

28

Chest Percussion

Manually cupping hands over the chest wall and using vibration to mobilize secretions by mechanically dislodging viscous or adherent secretions in the lungs

29

Chest Physiotherapy (CPT)

Therapy used to remove bronchial secretions, improve ventilation, and increase the efficiency of the respiratory muscles

Types include postural drainage, chest percussion, and vibration

30

Continuous Mandatory Ventilation (CMV)

Mode of mechanical ventilation in which the ventilator completely controls the patient's ventilation according to preset tidal volumes and respiratory rate

Because of problems with synchrony, it is rarely used except in paralyzed or anesthetized patients

31

Continous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

Positive pressure applied throughout the respiratory cycle to a spontaneously breathing patient to promote alveolar and airway stability

May be administered with endotracheal or tracheostomy tube or by mask

32

Endotracheal Intubation

Insertion of a breathing tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea

33

Fraction of Inspired Oxygen (FiO2)

Concentration of oxygen delivered (1.0 = 100% oxygen)

34

Incentive Spirometry

Method of deep breathing that provides visual feedback to help the patient inhale deeply and slowly to achieve maximum lung inflation

35

Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation (IMV)

Mode of mechanical ventilation that provides a combination of mechanically assisted breaths and spontaneous breaths

36

Mechanical Ventilator

A positive or negative pressure breathing device that supports ventilation and oxygenation

37

Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP)

Positive pressure maintained by the ventilator at the end of exhalation (instead of a normal zero pressure) to increase functional residual capacity and open collapsed alveoli

Improves oxygenation with lower fraction of inspired oxygen

38

Postural Drainage

Positioning the patient to allow drainage from all lobes of the lungs and airways

39

Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV)

Mode of mechanical ventilation in which preset positive pressure is delivered with spontaneous breaths to decrease work of breathing

40

Proportional Assist Ventilation (PAV)

Mode of mechanical ventilation that provides partial ventilatory support in proportion to the patient's inspiratory effects

Decreases the work of breathing

41

Respiratory Weaning

Process of gradual, systematic withdrawal or removal of ventilator, breathing tube, and oxygen

42

Alaryngeal Communication

Alternative modes of speaking that do not involve the normal larynx

Used by patients whose larynx has been surgically removed

43

Aphonia

Impaired ability to use one's voice due to disease or injury to the larynx

44

Nuchal Rigidity

Stiffness of the neck or inability to bend the neck

45

Rhinitis Medicamentosa

Rebound nasal congestion commonly associated with overuse of OTC nasal decongestants

46

Rhinorrhea

Drainage of a large amount of fluid from the nose

47

Rhinosinusitis

Inflammation of the nares and paranasal sinuses, including frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses

48

Xerostomia

Dryness of the mouth

49

Acute Lung Injury

Umbrella term for hypoxemic respiratory failure

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a severe form of acute lung injury

50

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

Nonspecific pulmonary response to a variety of pulmonary and nonpulmonary insults to the lung

Characterized by interstitial infiltrates, alveolar hemorrhage, atelectasis, decreased compliance, and refractory hypoxemia

51

Asbestosis

Diffuse lung fibrosis resulting from exposure to asbestos fibers

52

Atelectasis

Collapse or airless condition of the alveoli caused by hypoventilation, obstruction to the airways, or compression

53

Central Cyanosis

Bluish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes due to hemoglobin carrying reduced amounts of oxygen

54

Consolidation

Lung tissue that has become more solid in nature due to collapse of alveoli or infectious process (pneumonia)

55

Cor Pulmonale

Enlargement of the right ventricle from hypertrophy or dilation or as a secondary response to disorders that affect the lungs

56

Empyema

Accumulation of purulent material in the pleural space

57

Fine-Needle Aspiration

Insertion of a needle through the chest wall to obtain cells of a mass or tumor

Usually performed under fluoroscopy or chest computed tomography guidance

58

Hemoptysis

The coughing up of blood from the lower respiratory tract

59

Hemothorax

Partial or complete collapse of the lung due to blood accumulating in the pleural space

May occur after surgery or trauma

60

Induration

An abnormally hard lesion or reaction, as in a positive tuberculin skin test

61

Open Lung Biopsy

Biopsy of lung tissue performed through a limited thoracotomy incision

62

Pleural Effusion

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space

63

Pleural Friction Rub

Localized grating or creaking sound caused by the rubbing together of inflamed parietal and visceral pleurae

64

Pneumothorax

Partial or complete collapse of the lung due to positive pressure in the pleural space

65

Pulmonary Edema

Increase in the amount of extravascular fluid in the lung

66

Pulmonary Embolism

Obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature with an embolus

Embolus may be due to blood clot, air bubbles, or fat droplets

67

Restrictive Lung Disease

Disease of the lung that causes a decrease in lung volumes

68

Tension Pneumothorax

Pneumothorax characterized by increasing positive pressure in the pleural space with each breath

This is an emergency situation and the positive pressure needs to be decompressed or released immediately

69

Air Trapping

Incomplete emptying of alveoli during expiration due to loss of lung tissue elasticity (emphysema), bronchospasm (asthma), or airway obstruction

70

Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

Genetic disorder resulting from deficiency of alpha1-antitrypsin, a protective agent for the lung

Increases a patient's risk for developing panacinar emphysema even in the absence of smoking

71

Asthma

A disease with multiple precipitating mechanisms resulting in a common clinical outcome of reversible airflow obstruction

72

Bronchiectasis

Chronic, irreversible dilation of the bronchi and bronchioles that results from destruction of muscles and elastic connective tissue

Dilated airways become saccular and are a medium for chronic infection

73

Chronic Bronchitis

A disease of the airways defined as the presence of a cough and sputum production for at least a combined total of 3 months in each of 2 consecutive years

74

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible

Sometimes referred to as chronic airway obstruction or chronic obstructive lung disease

75

Desaturate

A precipitous drop in the saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen

76

Emphysema

A disease of the airways characterized by destruction of the walls of overdistended alveoli

77

Metered-Dose Inhaler

Patient-activated medication canister that provides aerosolized medication that the patient inhales into the lungs

78

Polycythemia

Increase in the red blood cell concentration in the blood

In COPD, the body attempts to improve oxygen carrying capacity by producing increasing amounts of RBCs

79

Spirometry

Pulmonary function tests that measure specific lung volumes (FEV1, FVC) and rates (FEF 25-75%)

May be measured before and after bronchodilator administration