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Adult Health Nursing I > Cardiovascular Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Definitions Deck (137):
1

Acute Coronary Syndrome

Refers to rupture of an atheromatous plaque in a diseased coronary artery, which rapidly form an obstructive thrombus

Signs and symptoms that indicate unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction

2

Afterload

The amount of resistance to ejection of blood from the ventricle

3

Apical Impulse

Impulse normally palpated at the fifth ICS, left MCL

Caused by the contraction of the left ventricle

Also called point of maximal impulse

4

Atrioventricular (AV) Node

Secondary pacemaker of the heart, located in the right atrial wall near the tricuspid valve

5

Baroreceptors

Nerve fibers located in the aortic arch and carotid arteries that are responsible for control of blood pressure

6

Cardiac Catheterization

An invasive procedure used to measure cardiac chamber pressures and assess patency of the coronary arteries

7

Cardiac Conduction System

Specialized heart cells strategically located throughout the heart that are responsible for methodically generating and coordinating the transmission of electrical impulses to the myocardial cells

8

Cardiac Output

Amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in liters per minute

9

Cardiac Stress Test

A test used to evaluate the functioning of the heart during a period of increased oxygen demand

Test may be initiated by exercise or medications

10

Contractility

Ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in response to an electrical impulse

11

Depolarization

Electrical activation of a cell caused by the influx of sodium into the cell while potassium exits

Cardiac muscle cells change from a more negatively charged state to a more positively charged state

12

Diastole

Period of ventricular relaxation resulting in ventricular filling

13

Ejection Fraction

Percentage of the end-diastolic blood volume ejected from the ventricle with each heartbeat

14

Hemodynamic Monitoring

The use of pressure monitoring devices to directly measure cardiovascular function

15

Hypertension

Blood pressure that is consistently greater than 140/90 mmHg

16

Hypotension

A decrease in blood pressure to less than 100/60 mmHg that compromises systemic perfusion

17

Murmurs

Sounds created by abnormal, turbulent flow of blood in the heart

18

Myocardial Ischemia

Condition in which heart muscle cells receive less oxygen than needed

19

Myocardium

Muscle layer of the heart responsible for the pumping action of the heart

20

Normal Heart Sounds

Sounds produced when the valves close

Normal heart sounds are S1 (AV valves) and S2 (semilunar valves)

21

Opening Snaps

Abnormal diastolic sound generated during opening of a rigid AV valve leaflet

22

Postural/Orthostatic Hypotension

A significant drop in blood pressure (20 mmHg systolic or more) after an upright posture is assumed

23

Preload

Degree of stretch of the cardiac muscle fibers at the end of diastole (ventricular filling)

24

Pulmonary Vascular Resistance

Resistance to blood flow out of the right ventricle created by the pulmonary circulatory system

25

Pulse Deficit

The difference between the apical and radial pulse rates

26

Radioisotopes

Unstable atoms that give off small amounts of energy in the form of gamma rays as they decay

Used in cardiac nuclear medicine studies

27

Repolarization

Return of the cell to resting state, caused by the reentry of potassium while sodium exits

Process by which cardiac muscle cells return to a more negatively charged state, which is their resting state

28

S1

The first heart sound produced by the closure of the AV valves (mitral and tricuspid)

29

S2

The second heart sound produced by the closure of the semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonic)

30

S3

An abnormal heart sound detected early in diastole as resistance is met to blood entering either ventricle

Most often due to volume overload associated with heart failure

31

S4

An abnormal heart sound detected late in diastole as resistance is met to blood entering either ventricle during atrial contraction

Most often caused by hypertrophy of the ventricle

32

Sinoatrial (SA) Node

Primary pacemaker of the heart, located in the right atrium

33

Stroke Volume

The amount of blood ejected from one of the ventricles per heartbeat

34

Summation Gallop

Abnormal sounds created by the presence of an S3 and S4 during periods of tachycardia

35

Systemic Vascular Resistance

Resistance to blood flow out of the left ventricle created by the systemic circulatory system

36

Systole

Period of ventricular contraction resulting in ejection of blood from the ventricles into the pulmonary artery and aorta

37

Systolic Click

Abnormal systolic sound created by the opening of a calcified aortic or pulmonic valve during ventricular contraction

38

Telemetry

The process of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring by the transmission of radio waves rom a battery-operated transmitter worn by the patient

39

Ablation

Removal of material from the surface of an object

In the context of cardiology, it is the purposeful destruction of heart muscle cells, usually in an attempt to control a dysrhythmia

40

Antiarrhythmic Medication

A medication that suppresses or prevents a dysrhythmia

41

Artifact

Distorted, irrelevant, and extraneous ECG waveforms

42

Automaticity

Ability of cardiac cells to initiate an electrical impulse

43

Cardioversion

Electrical current administered in synchrony with the patient's own QRS complex to stop a dysrhythmia

44

Chronotropy

Rate of impulse formation

45

Conduction

Transmission of electrical impulses from one cell to another

46

Defibrillation

Electrical current administered to stop a dysrhythmia, not synchronized with the patient's QRS complex

47

Dromotropy

Conduction velocity

48

Dysrhythmia

Disorder of the formation or conduction of the electrical impulse within the heart, altering the heart rate, heart rhythm, or both and potentially causing an altered blood flow

49

Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI)

A signal produced by a pacemaker when it is interrogated to indicate a near-depleted battery

50

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

A device implanted into the chest to treat dysrhythmias

51

Inotropy

Force of myocardial contraction

52

P Wave

The part of an ECG that reflects conduction of an electrical impulse through the atrium

Atrial depolarization

53

Paroxysmal

A dysrhythmia that has a sudden onset and/or termination and is usually of short duration

54

PP Interval

The duration between the beginning of one P wave and the beginning of the next P wave

Used to calculate atrial rate and rhythm

55

PR Interval

The part of an ECG that reflects conduction or an electrical impulse from the SA node to the AV node

56

Proarrhythmic

An agent that causes or exacerbates a dysrhythmia

57

QRS Complex

The part of an ECG that reflects conduction of an electrical impulse through the ventricles

Ventricular depolarization

58

QT Interval

The part of an ECG that reflects the time from ventricular depolarization through repolarization

59

RR Interval

The duration between the beginning of one QRS complex and the beginning of the next QRS complex

Used to calculate ventricular rate and rhythm

60

Sinus Rhythm

Electrical activity of the heart initiated by the SA node

61

ST Segment

The part of an ECG that reflects the end of the QRS complex and the beginning of the T wave

62

Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT)

A rhythm that originates in the conduction system above the ventricles

63

T Wave

The part of an ECG that reflects repolarization of the ventricles

64

TP Interval

The part of an ECG that reflects the time between the end of the T wave and the beginning of the next P wave

Used to identify the isoelectric line

65

U Wave

The part of an ECG that may reflect Purkinje fiber repolarization

Usually is not seen unless a patient's serum potassium level is low

66

Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)

A rhythm that originates in the ventricles

67

Angina Pectoris

Chest pain brought about by myocardial ischemia

68

Atheroma (Plaque)

Fibrous cap composed of smooth muscle cells that forms over lipid deposits within arterial vessels and protrudes into the lumen of the vessel, narrowing the lumen and obstructing blood flow

69

Atherosclerosis

Abnormal accumulation of lipid deposits and fibrous tissue within arterial walls and the lumen of a large or medium-sized artery

70

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)

A surgical procedure in which a blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted onto the occluded coronary artery below the occlusion in such a way that blood flow bypasses the blockage

71

High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)

A protein-bound lipid that transports cholesterol to the liver for excretion in the bile

Composed of a higher proportion of protein to lipid than LDL

Exerts a beneficial effect on the arterial wall

72

Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)

A protein-bound lipid that transports cholesterol to tissues in the body

Composed of a lower proportion of protein to lipid than HDL

Exerts a harmful effect on the arterial wall

73

Metabolic Syndrome

A cluster of metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease

74

Myocardial Infarction (MI)

Death of heart tissue caused by lack of oxygenated blood flow

75

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)

A procedure in which a catheter is placed in a coronary artery, and one of several methods is employed to reduce blockage within the artery

76

Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA)

A type of percutaneous coronary intervention in which a balloon is inflated within a coronary artery to break an atheroma and open the vessel lumen, improving coronary artery blood flow

77

Stent

A metal mesh that provides structural support to a coronary vessel, preventing its closure

78

Sudden Cardiac Death

Abrupt cessation of effective heart activity

79

Thrombolytic

A pharmacologic agent that breaks down blood clots

Also known as a fibrinolytic

80

Troponin

A cardiac muscle biomarker

Measurement is used as an indicator of heart muscle injury

81

Allograft

Heart valve replacement made from a human heart valve

82

Annuloplasty

Repair of a cardiac valve's outer ring

83

Aortic Valve

Semilunar valve located between the left ventricle and aorta

84

Autograft

Heart valve replacement made from the patients own heart

85

Bioprosthesis

Heart valve replacement made of tissue from an animal heart valve

86

Chordae Tendinae

Nondistensible fibrous strands connecting papillary muscles to AV valve leaflets

87

Choroplasty

Repair of chordae tendinae

88

Commissurotomy

Splitting or separating fused cardiac valve leaflets

89

Leaflet Repair

Repair of a cardiac valve's movable "flaps"

90

Mitral Valve

AV valve located between left atrium and left ventricle

91

Orthotopic Transplantation

The recipient's heart is removed and a donor heart is grafted into the same site

92

Prolapse

Stretching of an AV heart valve leaflet into the atrium during systole

93

Pulmonic Valve

Semilunar valve located between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery

94

Regurgitation

Backward flow of blood through a heart valve

95

Stenosis

Narrowing or obstruction of a cardiac valve's orifice

96

Total Artificial Heart

Mechanical device used to aid a failing heart, assisting the right and left ventricles

97

Tricuspid Valve

AV valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle

98

Valve Replacement

Insertion of a device at the site of a malfunctioning heart valve to restore blood flow in one direction through the heart

99

Valvuloplasty

Repair of a stenosed or regurgitant cardiac valve by commisurotomy, annuloplasty, leaflet repair, or choroplasty

100

Ventricular Assist Device

Mechanical device used to aid a failing right or left ventricle

101

Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

Acute exacerbation of heart failure, with signs and symptoms of severe respiratory distress and poor systemic perfusion

102

Anuria

Urine output of less that 50mL/24 hours

103

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT)

A treatment for heart failure in which a device paces both ventricles to synchronize contractions

104

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

A fluid overload condition associated with heart failure

105

Diastolic Heart Failure

The inability of the heart to pump sufficiently because of an alteration in the ability of the heart to fill

106

Ejection Fraction (EF)

Percentage of blood volume in the ventricles at the end of diastole that is ejected during systole

A measurement of contratility

107

Heart Failure

A clinical syndrome resulting from structural or functional cardiac disorders that impair the ability of a ventricle to fill or eject blood

108

Left-Sided Heart Failure

Inability of the left ventricle to fill or eject sufficient blood into the systemic circulation

109

Oliguria

Diminished urine output

Less than 0.5mL/kg/hour

110

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea (PND)

Shortness of breath that occurs suddenly during sleep

111

Pericardiocentesis

Procedure that involves aspiration of fluid from the pericardial sac

112

Pericardiotomy

Surgically created opening of the pericardium

113

Pulmonary Edema

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces of and alveoli of the lungs

114

Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA)

Condition in which electrical activity is present on an ECG, but there is not an adequate pulse or blood pressure

115

Pulsus Paradoxus

Systolic blood pressure that is more than 10mmHg lower during inhalation that during exhalation

Difference is normally less than 10mmHg

116

Right-Sided Heart Failure

The inability of the right ventricle to fill or eject sufficient blood into the pulmonary circulation

117

Systolic Heart Failure

Inability of the heart to pump sufficiently because of an alteration in the ability of the heart to contract

118

Anastomosis

Junction of two vessels

119

Aneurysm

A localized sac or dilation of an artery formed at a weak point in the vessel wall

120

Angioplasty

An invasive procedure that uses a balloon-tipped catheter to dilate a stenotic area of a blood vessel

121

Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI)

Ratio of the ankle systolic pressure to the brachial systolic pressure

An objective measurement of arterial disease that provides quantification of the degree of stenosis

122

Arteriosclerosis

Diffuse process whereby the muscle fibers and the endothelial lining of the walls of small arteries and arterioles thicken

123

Bruit

Sound produced by turbulent blood flow through an irregular, tortuous, stenotic, or dilated vessel

124

Dissection

Separation of the weakened elastic and fibromuscular elements in the medial layer of an artery

125

Duplex Ultrasonography

Combines B-mode grayscale imaging of tissue, organs, and blood vessels with capabilities of estimating velocity changes by the use of a pulsed Doppler

126

Intermittent Claudication

A muscular, cramplike pain in the extremities consistently reproduced with the same degree of exercise or activity and relieved by rest

127

Rest Pain

A persistent pain in the foot or digits when the patient is resting, indicating a severe degree of arterial insufficiency

128

Rubor

Reddish-blue discoloration of the extremities

Indicative of severe peripheral arterial damage in vessels that remain dilated and unable to constrict

129

Dyslipidemia

Abnormal blood lipid levels, including high total, low-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels as well as low high-density lipoprotein levels

130

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)

Flow rate of filtered fluid through the kidney

An indicator of renal function

131

Hypertensive Emergency

A situation in which blood pressure is severely elevated and there is evidence of actual or probable target organ damage

132

Hypertensive Urgency

A situation in which blood pressure is severely elevated but there is no evidence of target organ damage

133

Isolated Systolic Hypertension

A condition most commonly seen in the older adult in which the systolic pressure is greater than 140 mmHg and the diastolic pressure is within normal limits (less than 90 mmHg)

134

Monotherapy

Medication therapy with a single medication

135

Primary Hypertension

Denotes high blood pressure from an unidentified cause

Also called essential hypertension

136

Rebound Hypertension

Blood pressure that is controlled with medication and becomes uncontrolled with the abrupt discontinuation of medication

137

Secondary Hypertension

High blood pressure from an identified cause