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Flashcards in Respiratory Mechanics Deck (85)
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1

What is forced expiratory volume in one second?

Volume of air that can be expired during the first second of expiration in a vital capacity determination

2

What are the 4 lung volumes?

tidal (~500 ml)
inspiratory reserve (~3100 ml)
expiratory reserve (~1200 ml)
residual (~1200 ml)

3

What is the formula for Boyle's Law?

Pāˆ1/V

4

What is the difference between atmospheric and intrapulmonary pressure at rest?

0.

5

What is the value of intrapleural pressure (approximately)?

~756 mmHg

6

What are lung volumes and capacities measured using?

Spirometry.

7

Does lung tissue have skeletal muscle?

No

8

What can be said about the value of intrapleural pressure with respect to atmospheric pressure and pleural pressure?

Intrapleural pressure is always negative with respect to atmospheric pressure and Pleural Pressure.

9

What does lung tissue move with?

The thoracic cavity.

10

What is respiratory minute volume?

Amount of air moved into and out of the lung per minute
= Respiratory rate x Tidal volume

11

What is the average value of Residual Volume?

1200 mL

12

Can the body change tidal volume?

Yes

13

What can emphysema be caused by?

Smoking, irritants or toxic chemicals (e.g. asbestos, coal dust, solvents)

14

What is Expiratory reserve volume?

An extra volume of air that can be actively expired by maximal contraction beyond the normal volume of air after a resting tidal volume.

15

What are restricitive lung diseases characterised by?

A difficulty to inspire.

16

What are the two components of deep forceful breathing?

Deep Inhalation
Deep Exhalation

17

What determines elastance in lungs?

Elastance is due to elastic fibres and surface tension

18

What happens to the thoracic cavity in pulmonary ventilation?

Volume of thoracic cavity changes (with expansion or contraction of diaphragm or rib cage) in result to changes in pressure.

19

Is inhalation active or passive?

Active.

20

During quiet breathing, is exhalation passive or active?

Passive.

21

What are the two general categories of chronic respiratory diseases?

Obstructive lung diseases
Restrictive lung diseases

22

What are the two critical factors that cause the lung to move with the thoracic cavity?

Cohesive forces of intrapleural fluid
Transpulmonary pressure gradient across lung wall

23

What response does emphysema cause in the body?

An inflammatory response.

24

What keeps lungs open?

The constant transpulmonary gradient.

25

How does intrapleural pressure relate to atmospheric and intrapulmonary pressure?

~756 mmHg
Lower than atmospheric and intrapulmonary pressure (subatmospheric)

26

What drives pulmonary ventilation?

Pressure and air flow: air flows from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.

27

What happens to the chest wall and lungs during exhalation?

An elastic recoil.

28

What is the elastic recoil of chest wall and lungs due to?

Recoil of elastic fibres
Inward pull of surface tension of alveolar fluid

29

What is most work due to lung compliance caused by?

Most work is due to overcoming resistance of elastic lungs and thoracic cage stretching

30

How does air flow relative to a pressure gradient?

Air flows down the pressure gradient.