Respiratory Physiology Flashcards Preview

AS - N932 Advanced Pathology > Respiratory Physiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Physiology Deck (83)
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1

Parietal Pleura

Membrane that lines the inner chest wall surface

2

Visceral Pleura

Membrane that lines the outer lung surface

3

Pleural Space

Potential space
Contains mucoid/serous fluid that allows the parietal & visceral pleura to slide easily ↓friction

4

Inspiratory Muscles

Diaphragm 1° ventilation muscle
External intercostals
Accessory muscles - sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, & scalene

5

Expiration

PASSIVE

6

Forced Expiration

Internal intercostals
Accessory muscles - internal/external obliques, transversus abdominus, & rectus abdominus

7

Alveolar Interdependence

Alveoli connected
Negative pressure gradient transfers from outer alveoli to innermost

8

Radial Traction

Outside airways are tethered to alveolar wall
↑Pel ↑radial traction ↑airway diameter ↓resistance

9

LaPlace

P = (surface tension x 2) / radius

10

Air-Liquid Interface

H2O molecules have mutual attraction
Surface tension b/w air & water

11

Surfactant

Amphipathic molecule (detergent)
Polar & non-polar
↓Pel ↓WOB
Prevents alveoli from emptying small → large
Atelectasis ↓gas exchange

12

Deadspace

= VT [(PaCO2 - PeCO2) / PaCO2]
Over ventilation and/or under perfusion
Impaired gas exchange → V/Q mismatch ↑V/Q
Causes: PE, hypovolemia, cardiac arrest, shock, ↓pulmonary blood flow

13

Shunt

Ø alveolar ventilation d/t blockade or edema
Ø gas exchange → V/Q mismatch ↓V/Q
Absolute shunt V/Q = 0
Hypoxia unresponsive to supplemental oxygen

Causes: ETT mainstem, mucus plug, atelectasis, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, anything collapse alveoli

14

Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Right Shift

↑CO2 hypercapnia
↓pH
↑H+ ion
↑temperature
↑BPG (2,3 diphosphoglycerate) ↑metabolism
Acidotic - oxygen more easily dissociates from hemoglobin
↓affinity

15

Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve
Left Shift

↓CO2 hypocapnia
↑pH alkalosis
↓H+ ion
↓temperature
↓BPG
Alkalotic - more difficult to unload oxygen
↑affinity

16

Fick's Law

Gas diffusion across the alveolar-capillary membrane
= (area x diffusion coefficient x ΔP) / thickness

17

Air Components

79% nitrogen
21% oxygen
1% trace gases

18

Atmospheric Pressure

760mmHg

19

Upper Airway

Nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea

20

Nose

Filtration, smell, & air humidification

21

Larynx

Epiglottis, thyroid, & cricoid
Paired - arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform

22

Motor Innervation

RLN motor all EXCEPT cricothyroid muscle
SLN external - cricothyroid muscle

23

Sensory Innervation

SLN internal - above & vocal cords
RLN - below the vocal cords

24

Posterior Cricoarytenoid

Please come apart
Vocal cord ABduction

25

Lateral Cricoarytenoid

Let's close airway
Vocal cord ADduction

26

Cricothyroid

Cords tense
Vocal cord tension = laryngospasm

27

Thyroarytenoid

They relax
Vocal cord relaxation

28

Trachea

Incomplete cartilage rings - open posteriorly to prevent tracheal collapse
Transports gases b/w atmosphere & lung parenchyma
Begins at C6 (cricoid cartilage inferior border) & extends to carina
10-15cm
Cricoid = only complete ring
Bifurcates to R/L mainstem bronchus at T5

29

R Main Bronchus

T5
Shorter, wider, & more vertical
25-30° angle
R mainstem intubation

30

L Main Bronchus

T5
45° angle