Respiratory System, Digestive, Urinary, and Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory System, Digestive, Urinary, and Reproductive System Deck (77)
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1

ventilation

breathing

2

mechanical respiration

bring air in and bring air out

3

external respiration

bringing o2 into the body into lungs co2 pushed back out and exchange with the blood.

4

Internal respiration

taking o2 to tissues and carrying to body

5

cellular respiration

o2 in tissues and putting in each individual cell. produces ATP

6

Aerobic Respiration

takes place in the mitochondria and requires oxygen and glucose, and produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy

7

Anaerobic Respiration

produces energy and uses glucose, but it produces less energy and does not require oxygen.

8

Tidal volume

the amount of air that moves in and out with each breath.
normal breathing

9

Vital capacity

is the maximum amount of air that can be moved out in a single breath

10

inspiratory reserve volume

Inspiration can be increased by expanding the chest. active

11

expiratory reserve volume

expiration can be increased by CONTRACTING the abdominal and thoracic muscles. passivr

12

residual volume

air remaining in lungs after deep exhalation

13

The place in the back of the mouth through which both food and air pass is the

pharynx

14

The waste products of respiration are

water and carbon dioxide

15

True or false? Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the alveoli and the capillaries.

false

16

The actual site of gas exchange in the respiratory system is the

alveoli

17

True or false? Vital capacity is the movement of air during normal inspiration and expiration

false

18

Cilia in the respiratory tract serves to

filter dust from the air

19

Shortness of breath is known as

dyspnea

20

The gas concentration of blood is constantly monitored by

chemoreceptors

21

An inadequate supply of oxygen to the tissues results in a condition called

hypoxia

22

The volume of air in a normal breath is called

tidal

23

True or false. All tissues in your body receive the same amount of oxygen at any given time

false

24

True or false. During inspiration, the diaphragm moves upward.

false

25

True or false? The purpose of the turbinate's is to warm and moisten your inspired air.

true

26

apena

stop external breathing

27

Where is the intrinsic factor produced?

stomach

28

true or false. The pH of the stomach is approximately 7.

false. 1.5-3.5

29

true or false. Parietal cells secrete pepsinogen.

false. HCI

30

the enzyme that functions at the lowest pH

pepsin

31

What do parietal cells secrete?

HCI

32

what does The hormone gastrin stimulate?

gastric motility.

33

What is the enzyme responsible for protein digestion in the small intestine?

trypsin

34

Vitamin B12, which is needed for red blood cell production, requires ___________ for its absorption.

intrisnic factor

35

what does CCK stimulate?

the gall bladder to release bile into small intestine

36

Gastrin is a hormone of the digestive tract which stimulates?

parietal cells in the stomach to start producing HCl in preparation for food

37

Mouth:
Enzymes produced ?

salivary amylase and lingual lipase
Start Carbohydrate digestion

38

in the stomachChief cells produce?

pepsinogen

39

In the stomachHCl converts pepsinogen into pepsin which?

is the active enzyme to start protein digestion

40

In the stomach, HCl inactivates salivary amylase, so?

carbohydrate digestion stops

41

Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids all complete digestion here and are absorbed here.

small intestine

42

buffers in the mouth?

neutralize acid to prevent tooth decay

43

Water is reabsorbed to the bloodstream along the ascending or descending loop of Henle.

decending

44

true or false High blood pressure is inversely proportional to the rate of urine formation.

true

45

Most sodium is reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by

the proximal convoluted tubule

46

Which substance is not normally found in the urine?

glucose

47

An increased amount of ADH leads to

decrease in urine

48

Which of the following is not a step in urine formation
Select one:
a. Glomerular filtration
b. Glomerular absorption
c. Tubular reabsorption
d. Tubular secretion
e. all of the above

B

49

true or false. Aldosterone and ADH tend to have the same effect on blood concentration.

true

50

In the nephron where does filtration occur?

glomerulus

51

In the nephron where does reabsortion occur?

Pooximal tubule

52

In nephron where does tubule secreation occur?

In distal convulted tubule

53

in the nephron where is urine removed?

collecting duct

54

what does glomerular filtarte consist of?

water, salt glucose, nutrient molecules, and waste

55

what is unable to pass through the glomerular?

plasma proteins, blood cells, and platelets

56

What does tubular reabsorption do?

removes useful solutes from the filtrate and returns them to the blood

57

glucose, amino acids and positively charges ions are actively reabsorbed to the blood here

promimal convoluted tubule

58

where is water passively reabsorbed in the nephron loop

decending nephron loop

59

wherein the nephron loop are solutes reabsorbed

ascending loop

60

The function of the tubular secretion?

Removes additional wastes from the blood and adds them to the filtrate.

61

what stimulates reabsorption of salts from the filtrate into the blood and stimulates the secretion of potassium from the blood into the filtrate?

aldosterone hormone

62

antidiuretic hormone?

controls the amount of water reabsorbed from filtrate

63

excretion of hypertonic urine is dependent upon reabsorption of water from where?

the loop of the nephron and collecting duct

64

What are 2 major areas where we reabsorb water urine and put it back to the blood in?

loop of nephron, and collecting duct in descending loop of nephron

65

if you have ________ it means your pituitary gland is not secreting antidiuretic hormone without that we can't reabsorb water.

Diabetes insipidus

66

water balance is in?

decending loop and collecting duct

67

what hormone inhibits reabsorption of Na and water from the distal convoluted tubule?

atrial natriuretic hormone

68

The time when the egg is released from the ovary is called?

ovulation

69

The hormone that works with estrogen to prepare the endometrium for implantation of a fertilized egg is
Select one:
a. LH
b. FSH
c. ADH
d. progesterone

d

70

true or false. There is 3 phases to the menstrual cycle.

false

71

what is spermatogenesis

production of sperm cells occurs in the seminiferous tubules and begins at puberty

72

what gives the sperm it's energy to keep tail moving

mitochondria

73

what happens in prophase 1

crossing over exchange of genetic material all maternal and paternal chromosomes are going to pair up.

74

what is synapsis

maternal ans paternal are joined togerther

75

what does a primary follicle contain

an immature oocyte

76

what dies a graafian (vesicular) follicle contain?

growing follicle with maturing oocyte

77

Cilia function

slowly move the oocyte towards the uterus