Respiratory Viruses II Flashcards Preview

Infectious Disease: Unit 2 > Respiratory Viruses II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory Viruses II Deck (13):
1

Common viruses ==> respiratory tract illness

  • Rhinovirus
  • Parainfluenza
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
  • Metapneumovirus
  • Measles
  • Mumps
  • Rubella

2

Rhinovirus:

  • virus type
  • dz caused
  • serotypes/epidemiology
  • risk factors for serious disease/death
  • vaccines

  • Rhinovirus
    • Small, nonenveloped (+) ssRNA
  • Dz
    • Common cold
    • Asthma exacerbation
  • Sero/Epi
    • 3 groups, A, B, C
    • 100 serotypes
  • Risks
    • Group C can cause more serious LRT infections
  • Vaccines
    • None available

3

Parainfluenza:

  • virus type
  • dz caused
  • serotypes/epidemiology
  • risk factors for serious disease/death
  • vaccines

  • Parainfluenza
    • Large, envelope,
    • (-) ssRNA, helical capsid
  • Dz
    • Croup (k*)
    • Laryngotracheitis (k)
    • Bronchopneumonia (k)
    • Colds in adults
  • Sero: 4 types, 1-4
  • Vaccines: Working on PIV3

4

RSV:

  • virus type
  • dz caused
  • serotypes/epidemiology
  • risk factors for serious disease/death
  • vaccines

  • Dz
    • Bronchiolitis, bronchopnemonia (<1)
    • Colds (adults, older k)
  • Epidem = Winter epidemics in kids
  • Risks
    • Prematurity
    • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, heart abnormalities →
    • Winter babies <6mo get monoclonal Ab
  • Vaccine
    • past efforts terminated due to deaths, a better one is needed.
    • current clinical trial w/PIV3

5

Metapneumovirus:

  • virus type
  • dz caused
  • serotypes/epidemiology
  • risk factors for serious disease/death
  • vaccines

  • Metapneumovirus
    • Large, envelope,
    • (-) ssRNA, helical capsid
  • Dz
    • Colds
    • Interstitial pneumonia (a)
  • Vaccine
    • None available

6

Measles:

  • virus type
  • dz caused
  • serotypes/epidemiology
  • risk factors for serious disease/death
  • vaccines

  • Measles virus,
    • (-) ssRNA
  • Dz
    • Infection, Viremia →     Prodrome includes coryza, photophobia, fever → White lesions, maculopapular rash, fever → recovery
  • Sero = one serotype
  • Risk
    • If no T-Cells, giant cell pneumonia and death occur.
    • Malnourishment
    • Immunosuppression also ↑ death rates.
  • Vacine = live, attenuated vaccine (MMR)

7

Mumps:

  • virus type
  • diseases
  • serotype/epidemiology
  • vaccine

  • Mumps virus,
    • (-) ssRNA
  • Dz
    • Infection → Fever, inflammation, induration and pain of epithelia (parotid, testes, ovary, etc.)
  • Sero/Epid
    • Affects college aged ppl
    • one serotype
  • Vaccine =  live, attenuated vaccine (MMR)

8

Rubella:

  • virus type
  • diseases
  • serotype/epidemiology
  • risks for serious dz/death
  • vaccine

  • Rubella
    • Enveloped
    • (+) ssRNA
    • icosahedral capsid
  • Dz
    • Enters respiratory → Fever and rash after 2 weeks → resolution
    • Mild version of measles
  • Sero = one serotype
  • Risks
    • Adult women 1o infection get  arthralgia or arthritis.
    • Congenital rubella syndrome if passes thru placenta.
  • Vaccine = live, attenuated vaccine (MMR)

9

Characteristics of SARS coronavirus

  • SARS-coronavirus caused severe lower respiratory tract disease with a 50% fatality rate in people >65 years of age, and an overall fatality rate of 10%
  • Spread from person to person only late after infection and disease was often spread from aerosols generated by respiratory therapy equipment

10

SARS pandemic 2002-3

  • From February 2003 to June, 2003, the SARS-coronavirus spread from southern China to 29 countries, and caused 8,000 cases with about 730 deaths.
  • Candidate vaccines for SARS, although not really necessary at this point

11

Source of SARS + approach to elimination

  • 2002, SARS jumped to humans from an animal reservoir (horseshoe-nosed bat)
  • The pandemic strain of SARS coronavirus was eliminated from the human population (but is still in labs) by June, 2003!
    • co-ordinated global surveillance
    • quarantine and isolation of all victims and exposed persons

12

Characteristics of MERS coronavirus

  • zoonotic coronavirus.
  • Sporadic infection and hospital acquired infections. Fever, cough, myalgias
  • High fatality rate esp. in those with underlying clinical conditions
  • >178 confirmed cases and 75 deaths in Arabian peninsula

13

Efforts to eradicate measles

  • measles virus only infects humans
  • every case is clinically apparent and there is an effective vaccine that can be used during the 2 week incubation to prevent disease in contacts
  • most measles in the USA is due to imported cases.
  • eradication campaign has been hindered by politics & fear of the vaccine ==> measles re-emerged in Europe ==> imported into the USA