Flashcards in Reticular Formation Deck (10):
what is RF?
continuous network of nerve cells and fibers that extend through the neurosis from the SC to the cerebral cortex
it is strategically placed amount the nerve tracts and nuclei so that it receives input from most sensory systems
it has efferent projects that decent and ascend to all levels of the CNS
(everything that goes up and down will send collaterals into the RF)
what are the general functions of the RF?
control of skeletal muscle -regulation of the motor system
control of somatic and visceral sensation
-ARAS (with control of somatic sensation)
--> focusing of attention, habituation
Control of ANS- regulation of visceral activity
-respiration, cardiac function, vasomotor tone, reflexes, etc
Control of endocrine NS with hypothalamus
-influence on biological clocks
?sleep (esp non REM)
(pons controlls the bladder; medulla the heart)
what is the general arrangement of non-cerebellar RF?
3 longitudinal columns:
-Raphe nucleus - serotonin (pain modulation)
-large size (gigantocellular)
-small size (parvocellular)
what is the general arrangement of the pre-cerebellar RF?
what is the function of serotonin? where is it?
where: dorsal and median raphe nuclei
throughout BS, SC, cerebral cortex, cerebrum
neurochemicals made in RF
what is dopamine? where is it produced?
neuromodulator that affects how things work, but doesn't stimulate anything itself
-facilitate voluntary movement
Ventral tegmental area:
-involved in reward system
-somehow assigns value to, or reinforces, certain adaptive behaviors
no dopamine=no motivation, depression
dopamine assigns value to what you are doing, reinforces it (issue- might not do the right thing all the time)
what is norepinephrine? functions? where?
locus coeruleus-most prominent area
pontine and medullary groups
-regulation of attention, arousal, sleep/wake cycles, learning, memory, anxiety, pain, mood, and brain metabolism
seems to turn on by new, unexpected, non-painful sensory stimuli
too much= hyper anxious, anxiety issues, insomnia, don't go into non-REM sleep
what is acetylcholine?
basal forebrain complex
-medial septal nuclei
-basal nuclei of Meynert- medial and ventral to BG
pontomesencephalotegmental comples- pedunculopontine nucleus
-acts on dorsal thalamus
-both assist in the regulation of the excitability of sensory relay neurons and ARAs
promotes arousal in the brain; short and long term
causes membranes to act different, drive brain
what is histamine?
comes from hypothalamus (tubermamillary nucleus)
important in sleep-wake cycle, keeps cerebellum awake
goes up central segmental bundle