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Flashcards in Receptors Deck (27):
1

what are receptors?

transducers that change physical and chemical stimuli into electrical nerve impulses

2

what is afferent (sensory) information used for?

sensation- conscious, must be perceived

control of movement (e.g. flexor reflex)

maintaining arousal

protection- pain, reflexes

3

for sensation you must have a ____?

cerebral cortex

4

sensory receptors go to ____?

autonomic effectors

5

what are the 4 receptor qualities?

receptors mediate 4 stimulus qualities that can be quantified

1: modality
2: intensity
3: duration
4: location

6

modality:

labeled line code- modality specific

vision
hearing
touch
taste
smell

7

intensity:

frequency- increase # of receptors; threshold

temporal - how fast
spatial- how many

8

duration:

relationship between stimulus intensity and perceived intensity

discharge patterns of RA & SA

9

location:

location of receptor, types of discharges

10

modalities and qualities of sensation depend on:

1: temporal and spatial patterns of activation

2: specificity of sensory endings
(lowest threshold for a receptor is the "novel stimulus" (i.e. lowest threshold for eye receptors is light))

3: central connections
(where it goes in the cerebral cortex determines the type of stimulus detected (a touch sensory put in the eye would sense touch as sight)???
(primary sensory cortices- go along with modalities; input goes to certain areas; central connections

11

what is the quality for the sensory modality vision?

color, motion

12

what is the quality for the sensory modality hearing?

pitch

13

what is the quality for the sensory modality smell?

> 20 odors

14

what is the quality for the sensory modality taste?

sweet
sour
salt
bitter
"umami" (MSG, other amino acids)

15

what is the quality for the sensory modality somatic?

touch-pressure
warm-cold
flutter-vibration
pain, itch, tickle
postion and movement senses

16

rate coding:

the greater the response the greater the stimulus

spike in AP

the more AP, the higher the intensity

17

Topographic (somatotopic) map

slide 7 of receptors????

occipital-seeing
temporal- hearing
parietal- somatostatic

primary sensory cortices to go with modalities. go to certain areas of cerebral cortex. this is what is meant by central connections

18

what are the 3 anatomic classifications of receptors?

exteroceptor

proprioceptors

interoceptors

19

what are exteroceptors?

located on external body surfaces

touch
pressure
pain
temperature
smell
vision
hearing

20

what are proprioceptors?

located in tendons, joints, ligaments, fascia

position sense
movement sense

21

what are interoceptors?

(visceroceptors)

visceral sensations
digestion
excretion
circulation
respiration
taste
pain

22

what are the 6 physiologic classifications of receptors?

**based on novel stimulus

1: mechanoreceptors- physical or mechanical stimuli

2: thermoreceptors- temperature

3: photoreceptors- light

4: chemoreceptors- chemicals

5: pain receptors

6: nociceptors- damage (pain & damage info)

23

what is habitutation?

decrease in response to a constant/repeated stimulus

24

what is adaptation?

stops working because it is used to the response

25

phasic/dynamic

fast adapting

will respond when you touch it and stops when you stop touching it; only sees change (when stimulus is turned on or off, not in between)

more time detection

26

tonic/static

slow adapting

will respond when you touch it and then there is a slow decay when you remove the stimulus

27

receptor fields- individual neurons

slide 11 receptors ????