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Flashcards in Retinal Detachment Deck (31)
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Define retinal detachment and name the 3 types

Separation of the neurosensory retina from the underlying RPE by sub-retinal fluid



what happens in tractional retinal detachment

Vitreoretinal membranes pull on retina

(membranes in vitreous adheres to the retina and slowly pulls it off)


what happens in exudative retinal detachment

Fluid from choriocapillaris passes through damaged RPE and lifts retina (pushes it off)


what happens in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

Full thickness retinal break allows liquefied vitreous to collect under retina


list 3 features of the symptoms of a tractional retinal detachment

- Not acute
- Floaters and flashes usually absent
- Field defect progresses slowly may become stationary


list the 4 signs of a tractional retinal detachment

- Concave retina
- Breaks absent
- SRF shallow
- Retina immobile


list 4 possible causes of a tractional retinal detachment

- Proliferative diabetic retinopathy
- Sickle cell retinopathy
- Retinopathy of prematurity
- Penetrating posterior segment trauma


list 3 features of the symptoms of an exudative retinal detachment

- Flashes absent
- Floaters if associated with virtitis
- Field defect can progress rapidly


list the 3 signs of an exudative retinal detachment

- convex
- smooth
- retina very mobile


list 5 possible causes of an exudative retinal detachment

- Choroidal tumours
- Exopytic retinoblastoma
- Posterior scleritis
- Subretinal neovascularisation (new blood vessels below the retina that cause it to be elevated)
- Severe hypertension


list 3 possible causes of a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

- Round holes/tears found in young myopes
- Usually from vitreous traction and retinal degeneration
- Posterior vitreous detachment PVD


How can the mechanism of a PVD cause a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

the vitreous collapses on itself and pulls the retina off away from the RPE, this can cause traction.

The collapsed vitreous is liquefied and can separate the vitreous base through the internal limiting membrane and hence pulls the retina away from the RPE


list 6 risk factors of the rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

- Age
- Myopia > 6.00D
- Severe ocular trauma
- Cataract surgery
- Previous retinal detachment
- Retinal degenerations


list 5 possible symptoms of a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

Any combination of:

- Photopsia/Flashes
Traction on retina (vitreous pulling on retina)

- Floaters
Associated PVD

- Visual field loss
Detachment of neurosensory retina (retina peeled away from blood supply = shadow)

- Reduced visual acuity (subretinal fluid spreads to macula)

- Occasionally asymptomatic
Retinal holes in young myopic patients


list 3 features of the photopsia experienced with a PVD

- Temporal, vertically orientated, momentary flashes
- More noticeable in the dark?
- White, silver, yellow or golden


how will a px describe floaters from a retinal detachment and list 2 things that can be the cause of these floaters

Sudden onset of shower

- Red blood cells
- Pigment cells, or pigment granules in vitreous


list 6 investigations you will carry out in practice with suspicions of a retinal detachment

- Measure visual acuity
Reduced in RD if macula affected
If VA still good, can still have an RD or retinal tear in periphery

- Relative afferent pupillary defect
If significant RD

- Reduced IOP

- Visual field

- Slit-lamp
Anterior chamber

- Dilated fundus and vitreous examination with high-powered fundus viewing lens


what causes a reduced IOP with a retinal detachment

RD causes inflammation in the anterior chamber, which affects the ciliary epithelium and hence the production of aqueous


what 2 things can cause the visual acuity to decrease in an RD

- Subretinal fluid spreading towards macula
- Macula off


list 3 things you will look for in the vitreous when investigating an RD

- Posterior vitreous detachment
Weiss ring
Vitreous syneresis

- Vitreous haemorrhage

- Shafer’s sign


what is Shafer's sign

pigment epithelium in the anterior vitreous - Berger's space


list the 4 things you will look for on the fundus with indirect fundus examination when investigating an RD

- Lattice degeneration - Atrophic retina with varying degree of RPE atrophy

- Holes - Chronic atrophy of sensory retina

- Tears

- Detachment


what is the hospital management of lattice degeneration

- Dilated, indented examination both eyes
- Isolated lattice seldom treated now
- Usually discharged
- Retinal detachment warning (RDW)
- Annual dilated optometry review


what are retinal tears the result of and name 3 types of retinal tears

Result of vitreoretinal traction

- Horse shoe tear - ripped retina

- Operculated tear - area of retina that's torn off and floating in vitreous

- Dialysis - retina hanging down from gravity


list how you must manage a retinal break/tear which is, symptomatic, any fluid and asymptomatic/lower risk

Refer all retinal breaks

- Symptomatic: emergency
- Any fluid: emergency
- Lower risk/asymptomatic: urgent


what is the hospital management of a retinal break and name the 2 types of this.

what are the 3 steps of the review period following treatment

Most flap tears undergo retinopexy
- Laser retinopexy: burning retina onto sclera
- Cryotherapy: freezing probe
(Written information retinal detachment warning)

- 2 weeks
- 6 weeks for epiretinal membrane
- Discharge for annual dilated optometry review


what is what referral speed/optometric management for macula on and for macula off RD

Retina needs to be reattached within:

24 hours if macula on
1 week of macula off


what can occur the longer that the retina is off and what is the disadvantage of this

Proliferative vitreoretinopathy’

where the RPE and glial cells proliferate and produce cells that form a membrane over the retina.

Disadvantage = this stops light getting to the retina and it contracts and pulls the retina off


list 3 types of surgeries used to treat an RD

- Pneumatic retinopexy
- Cryobuckle
- Vitrectomy


list the steps of a Pneumatic retinopexy used to treat an RD

- Cryo or laser break
- Inject intravitreal expansile gas (C3F8) into vitreous chamber
- Floatation force tamponades the retina onto the RPE
- Position patient for 1 -2 weeks 23/24 hours a day head forwards so gas bubble pushes retina onto RPE

Success 70%


list the steps of how a Cryobuckle surgery is carried out to treat an RD

- Locate breaks with 20D indirect ophthalmoscope
- Cryo or laser break
- Place external explant to indent sclera - squeeze the eye with a buckle
- Pushes RPE into apposition with retina
- Usually no gas tamponade

Success 80-90%