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Flashcards in Review Deck (20):
1

endosymbiosis

creation of mitochondria
- bacterium engulfs but no digest archaeon

2

evidence of endosymbosis

(1) double membrane
(2) size: mitochondria ≈ bacterium
(3) replication by fission, not mitosis
(4) replication independent of nucleus - timing
(5) bacterial-like ribosomes
(6) special genome (circular ≠ linear)

3

molecules that build living orgs

(1) mainly H2O
(2) large molcules: proteins, nucleic acids, carbs & lipids

4

monomer

small molecule that covalently bind to otro similar molecules to form large macromolecule

5

polymer

any long molecule composed of small repeating units (monomers) bonded juntos

6

hydrolysis

polymer + H2O → monomer

7

condensation

monomer → polymer + H2O

8

types of polymers

(1) protein
(2) nucleic acid
(3) polysaccharides

9

cilia

short, filamentous projections used for motion & to circulate fluid/particles around surface of STATIONARY cell
- found in single-celled eukaryotes
- asymmetric wave form
- many per cell
- core = microtubules

(ie) ciliated epithelia

10

flagella

long, cellular projection that undulates (eukaryotes) or rotates (prokaryotes) to move cell through aqueous environment
- symmetric wave form
- only 1-2 per cell

(ie) spermatoza

11

microvilli

tiny protusions from surface of epithelial cell
- fcn: ↑ surface area for substance absorption
- look like cilia & flagella
- immobile

12

cilia / flagella structure

(1) microtubules (9 + 2 structure)
(2) dynein arms
(3) covered in plasma membrane
(4) axoneme

13

model systems

used to study flagellum

14

levels of biological organization

(1) biosphere
(2) ecosystem
(3) community
(4) population
(5) multicellular organism
(6) organ system
(7) organ
(8) tissue
(9) cell
(10) organelle
(11) molecule
(12) atom

A M O C T O OS MO P C E B

15

domains of life

(1) Bacteria
(2) Archaea
(3) Eukarya

16

secondary endosymbiosis significance

(1) chloroplasts
(2) mitochondria
(3) nuclear membrane

17

Bacteria characteristics

(1) DNA ≠ enclosed by nuclear envelope
(2) circular chromosome
(3) no organelles enclosed by membranes
(4) rotating flagella present
(5) unicellular species
(6) plasma membrane lipids composed of glycerol bonded to unbranched fatty acids by ester linkages
(7) cell walls present & contain peptidoglycan
(8) RNA polymerase compose of 5 subuniits
(9) translation initiated w/ N-formylmethionine (f-met)
(10) prokaryote

18

Archaea characteristics

(1) DNA ≠ enclosed by nuclear envelope
(2) circular chromosome
(3) no organelles enclosed by membranes
(4) rotating flagella present
(5) unicellular species
(6) branched lipids bonded by ether linkages
(7) no cell walls
(8) RNA polymerase composed of >10 subunits
(9) translation initiated w/ methionine
(10) prokaryote

19

Eukarya characteristics

(1) DNA enclosed by nuclear envelope
(2) linear chromosome
(3) organelles enclosed by membranes
(4) flagella & cilia undulate
(5) multicellular species
(6) branched lipids bonded by ether linkages
(7) no cell walls
(8) RNA polymerase composed of >10 subunits
(9) translation initiated w/ methionine

20

flagella & cillia locations

(1) respiratory system
(2) photoreceptors - eyes
(3) reproductive system - sperm flagellum & fallopian tube cilia