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Rule of reason vs. Per Se

Nature of intervention
1. Per se: so obvious that the only defense is to claim you didnt do it

2. rule of reason
-act is evaluated on merits


Trade and monopoly

increasing trade provides alternative to customers,
**less worried about domestic monopoly

depends what view of monopoly you take.
ie. chicago, monopoly is fine


Diamond model components

1. Firm strategy, structure and rivalry
2. demand conditions
3. factor conditions
4. related and support

Side parts:
1. chance
2. government


Diamond model

network of suppliers, customers put pressure on firms to be successful


endogenous protection theory

- less legitimate
-consider those that:

1. pay lots of taxes
2. geographic concentration
3. political dispersion


conditions of strategic trade policy

1. spill over:
-concentration of resources leads to benefits that accrue to society

needs to be domestic and absorbable

2. linkage
-supply chain relationships


Flak Examples

* constrains what people can say in the first place
* companies can threaten to sue, retractions, some large companies may have less?
* overplaying: media is serving function that supports vested interests


Noam chomsky belief

*media operates under constraints that support the elites of today



provide market (if you have the right to pollute as a tradable amount), the market will find the right amount



what you measure is what you get,

does it actually fix the problem


can the government solve problems? (3 types of failures)

1. demand
2. supply
3. provision


WTO and the environment

At the highest level, there should be an apporapraite amount of regulaiton.

1. Differences in wealth, culture, leads to moral imperailsm vs. trade and misery

2. not what the counteies signed up for
3. illegitimate abuse,


Negotiating in the shadow of the law

* (no rules, only consequences options: court, settle )
* relational
* reputitional
* legal


What is the right quality of environmental regulation

1. Sustainability (hard to measure
2. harm
3. cost benifit analysis, use of danger premium


EKC caveat

only polution that is local in spillover and perceibale. eg. dump in river


Tech on the EKC

pushes entire curve down