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Flashcards in REVIEW TEST4 Deck (44)
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1

What is function of kidney?

Excretion
Blood volume regulation
Concentration of solute
Regulate extracellular fluid pH
Red blood cell synthesis = secrete erythropoietin when not enough O2 in blood
Activate Vitamin D

2

Arrange in order : minor calyxes to urethra (6)

Minor calyx
Major calyx
Renal pelvis
Ureters
Urinary bladder
Urethra

3

How is the kidney protected from mechanical shock?

Renal capsule is a layer of adipose tissue cushions the kidney against mechanical shock, protected under ribs and layers of muscle

4

Blood vessel, nerves, ureter enter/leave kidney where?

Renal hilum

5

Kidney's cone shaped renal pyramid. What does it called?

Renal medulla
Renal pyramid

6

What's the tissue between pyramid called?

Renal column

7

What's the function of unit of the kidney called?

Nephron

Filtering, reabsorbing, secrete excess solute that we don't need

8

Network of capillaries in the bowman's capsule, what is it called?

Glomerulus

9

What's the filtration slits?

Podocyte wrap around capillary so amino acid can go through, but not protein and RBCells

10

Structure in afferent arterial, that would change blood flow to.....? Next structure?

Glomerulus

11

What is the filtration membrane consist of?

Podocyte
Capillary endothelium
Basement membrane

12

What is the portion of nephron that empties into the collecting duct?

Distal convoluted tubule

13

Renal corpuscle connect to :

(Glomerulus and bowmans capsule)

Proximal convoluted tubule

14

Arrange in sequence in which the filtrate move through them

(Glomerulus (blood))
Bowmans capsule (filtrate)
Proximal convoluted tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal convoluted tubule
Collecting duct
Renal papilla
Minor calyx
Major calyx
Renal pelvis
Ureter
Urinary bladder
Urethra

15

What is Vasa recta?

Capillaries maintain countercurrent exchange between Vasa recta and loop of Henle, work together to filter blood to concentrate urine

16

What is the skeletal muscle that surround urethra? What does it do?

External urethral sphincter
= voluntary control urination

17

What % of filtrate becomes urine?

Less than 1%.

18

In glomerular nephritis, what might you expect to find in urine?

Protein or blood cells

19

What does cremaster and dartos muscle do?

Both dartos muscle and cremaster muscle regulate temperature of testis

Cremaster muscle covers the testis, moves the testis, guard against injury.

20

Where are sperm produced?

Seminiferous tubule in testicles

21

What is the name of the thick white capsule covers testi?

Tunica albuginea

22

Which hormone produced by testis?

Testosterone

23

What are the Leydig / interstitial cells do?

Produce testosterone

24

Undescended testis means what?

Both testis fail to move into the scrotum before birth, cause infertility, increase cancer risk
3% full term
30% premature

25

What Sertoli cells do?

(Locate in seminiferous tubules)

Nourish germ cells
Secrete hormones (androgens, estrogens, inhibin)
Form blood testis barrier (prevent sperm from escaping into blood stream)

26

What are the structures found in spermatic cord?

Blood vessels (testicular veins and artery)
Nerves (testicular nerve)
Ductus deferens
Cremaster muscle (cover)

27

Arrange structure sperm pass from seminiferous tubule to end of penis

Seminiferous tubule
Rete testis
Efferent ductule
Epididymis
Ductus deferens
Ampulla
Seminal gland
Ejaculatory duct
Prostatic urethra
Membranous urethra
Spongy urethra
External urethra orifice

28

Ovary is attach to uterus by:

Ovarian ligament and broad ligament

29

Primary oocyte counts VS how many ovulated?

Primary oocytes before birth 3-5 million
At birth 2 million undergo atresia = ( passage closed or absent)
At puberty 300,000
Only 400 rise to the secondary oocytes = ovulate

30

When does fertilization occur?

When sperm meet an egg
Egg stays in Fallopian tube for 24 hours to meet sperm