Flashcards in Revision Deck (112)
By what is the CSF produced?
Deep grooves in the brain
Wrinkles on the surface of the cerebellum
Opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes
Pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord and leave the spine (vertebral column) through...
Two ascending sensory pathways to the somatosensory cortex
Dorsal column pathway
A spinal nerve innervates a...
A motor nerve innervates a...
Myotome (multiple muscles)
Axon tract that connects the hypothalamus and the hippocampus
What is the neuromuscular junction?
The synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle
Transport in microtubules
Anterograde and retrograde
Number of pairs of spinal nerves
The mesoderm gives rise to...
Vascular system, muscles, connective tissues
The endoderm gives rise to...
Gut, liver, pancreas, lungs
The process of how the ectoderm begins to give rise to the Nervous System
4 stages for the ectodermal cells to become neural progenitor cells
4 types of astrocytes... and where?
Fibrous, white matter
Protoplasmic, grey matter
Muller glia, retina
Bergmann glia, cerebellum
By which cells is the blood-brain barrier formed?
Vascular endothelial cells
The three states of microglia
Where are microglia progenitors found?
Satellite (glial) cells are found on...
Dorsal root sensory ganglia
They cover axon terminals at
the skeletal neuromuscular junction
In what layer of the retina are Muller glia found?
Inner nuclear layer
What is reactive gliosis?
The injury response of Müller glia to retinal injury and disease by changing their morphology, biochemistry and physiology
The sense of "being"
Response to (potentially) harmful stimuli
Spinothalamic from skin to thalamus (pain and temperature)
Dorsal column from skin, joints to somatosensory cortex (touch and proprioception)
Relationship between enteric NS and parasympathetic NS
The enteric NS can act as an effector system for the parasympathetic (their neurons are connected)
Which autonomic PNS subdivision has a ganglia?
Difference between parasympathetic and sympathetic NS axons
The parasympathetic and the sympathetic NS recruit information from which nerves in the spinal cord?
Cranial and sacral (paras.)
Thoracic and lumbar (symp.)
Auditory cortex and memory (hippocampus)
Motor cortex and high reasoning
The forebrain is made up of...
Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus)
Telencephalon (cerebral cortex, basal ganglia)
What part of the brain is responsible of smell and where is it?
Olfactory bulb (forebrain)
The midbrain is made up of...
Superior culliculus (optic tectum)
Inferior colliculus (nucleus of the auditory pathway)
What are the visceral cranial nerves?
What fibres are responsible for motor timing in the cerebellum?
How many synapses does each granule cell form with Purkinje cells in the cerebellum?
One climbing fibre connects directly to...
1 Purkinje cell
How many synapses between a climbing fibre and a Purkinje cell?
Interneurons in the cerebellum and their function
Stellate and basket cells (surround inhibition)
Golgi cells (inhibitory feedback to control the gain of granule cells input to Purkinje cells)
How does LTD affect the cerebellum?
It decreases the efficacy of parallel fibre and climbing fibre synapse transmission with Purkinje cells
What do climbing fibres carry in the cerebellum?
Error signals that cause parallel fibre inputs to be weakened (plasticity of the synapses between parallel fibres and Purkinje cells)
Do all induction signals come from morphogens?
Where is Shh produced?
In the notochord and in the floor plate
The neuroepithelium can be divided into different... that will give rise to specific kinds of cells
One oligodendrocyte myelinates...
One Schwann cell myelinates...
One Schwann cell demyelinates...
Cell phases position in the inter kinetic nuclear migration
3H thymidine is used to directly measure...
It's a radioactive nucleoside
Where does tangential migration start? Where is it led?
It starts in the MGE (medial ganglionic eminence, subpallium) and goes to the neocortex (pallium)
Is cell division symmetric or asymmetric in the ventricular zone?
Is cell division symmetric or asymmetric in the subventricular zone?
Are pyramidal neurons excitatory or inhibitory in the cortex?
Where do pyramidal neurons originate in the cortex?
Local ventricular zone
What cells does tangential migration involve?
Inhibitory cortical interneurons
What type of cells are encountered in the hippocampus? What are their axons?
Granule cells (mossy fibres)
Pyramidal cells (Schaffer collaterals)
What cortical layers are involved with thalamic input?
Layers 4 and 6
Cortical layer 5 sends axons to...
The spinal cord and the striatum
Cells types in the cortex
Basket and clutch cells (inhibitory)
Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic NS are regulated by the...
What can you find in a neurones cytoskeleton?
Microtubules (anterograde and retrograde transport of organelles and molecules, made of tubuline)
Microfilaments (made of actine)
Neurofilaments (core of the axon)
Areas of the cortex involved in speech
Wernicke's area (lateral sulcus - parietal and temporal lobe, understanding of speech and choosing the right words)
Broca's area (frontal lobe, movements for speech)
Diploblastic are organisms with only...
2 germ layers (mesoderm is missing)
Neural crest fate
Cranial (skin, Schwann cells, connective tissues)
Vagal and lumbo-sacral (enteric NS)
Trunk (melanocytes, Schwann cells, sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia, medullar cells)
Oligodendrocytes progenitors' markers
Where do astrocytes come from?
Radial glia (embryogenesis)
Transformation of radial glia at the end of neurogenesis
Where do microglia come from? Where do they go?
Myeloid lineage (bone marrow) → neural tube, where they become embryonic microglia.
They are mostly found in the white matter.
What glial cells proliferate extensively?
Oligodendrocytes and microglia. NOT astrocytes.
What do non-myelinating Schwann cells do?
They surround small non-myelinated axons
What are terminal glia involved in?
They cover axon terminals at the skeletal neuromuscular junction
Muller glia response to damaged retina
Schwann cells response to peripheral nerve injury
They phagocytise their own myelin and recruit macrophages to clean up residues.
They remyelinate axons but the sheaths are now thinner.
Where are Bergmann glia found?
Purkinje cell layer, cerebellum
What are mature Bergmann glia? What do they express?
Astrocytes with long processes that cross the molecular layer. They express GABA and glutamate transporters.
What do Bergmann glia do in the developing cerebellum?
They guide radial migration of immature neurons
Where do Bergmann glia originate?
In the 4th ventricle from neuroepithelial cells. They migrate from the VZ to the mantle zone.
What does the alar plate originate?
The dorsal horn of the spinal cord
A protein necessary for correct cell migration along radial glia in the cerebral cortex...
Reelin, produced by Cajal-Retzius cells close to the pial surface
Histogenesis in the neural tube...
Progression defines regionality
The "knee jerk" circuit is/has...
1 motor neuron
1 sensory neuron
Growth cone guidance is influenced by...
CAMs (adhesion to the substrate)
Guiding factor (attraction/repulsion)
Examples of growth cone guidance
Depolymerisation of actine (turn left/right)
Stabilisation of microtubules (go forward)
Destabilisation of microtubules (turn)
An axon is finding its topographic location. What is it influenced by?
Ephrine and eph gradients.
Interaction of ephrine with eph will inhibit axonal growth.
Complementary chemical markers on growing axons and their target
Each muscle is innervated by how many nerves?
Size of a large soma
What organs are located in the ventricles? What are they responsible of?
Circumventricular organs. Responsible for linkage between the CNS and the peripheral blood stream.
The 5th lobe...
Limbic lobe, around the corpus callosum
Main input to the cerebellum comes from what system?
The limbic system is made up of...
Hippocampus and amigdala
Where do climbing fibres found in the cerebellum come from?
Inferior olive, medulla
Mossy fibers in the cerebellum relay sensory information from...
Role of the enteric NS
Control of secretion and muscular activity of the digestive system from the esophagus to the rectum
What types of neurons are found in the enteric NS and where?
Sensory + motor neurons and interneurons in the walls of the gastrointestinal system
Motor proteins involved in neuron microtubules transport
Kinesin and dynein
Where are mitochondria found in neurons?
Soma, dendrites, axons
Where do oligodendrocytes originate?
Ventral zone of the spinal cord and of the telencephalon
The olfactory bulb is supplied with new neurons by...
The adult SV zone
Adults stem cells are remnants of...
The embryonic neuroepithelium
Define neurovascular coupling
Relationship between local neural activity and the changes in cerebral blood flow
What is the procedural region?
Cluster of ectodermal cells that acquire the potential to give rise to neuronal precursors
The NGF is taken up by which neurons?
Sympathetic neurons (retrograde transport)