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1

By what is the CSF produced?

Choroid plexuses

2

Deep grooves in the brain

Fissures

3

Wrinkles on the surface of the cerebellum

Folium

4

Opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes

Foramen magnum

5

Pairs of spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord and leave the spine (vertebral column) through...

Intervertebral foramina

6

Two ascending sensory pathways to the somatosensory cortex

Spinothalamic pathway
Dorsal column pathway

7

A spinal nerve innervates a...

Dermatome

8

A motor nerve innervates a...

Myotome (multiple muscles)

9

Hippocampus cortex

Entorhinal cortex

10

Axon tract that connects the hypothalamus and the hippocampus

Fornix

11

What is the neuromuscular junction?

The synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle

12

Transport in microtubules

Anterograde and retrograde

13

Number of pairs of spinal nerves

31

14

The mesoderm gives rise to...

Vascular system, muscles, connective tissues

15

The endoderm gives rise to...

Gut, liver, pancreas, lungs

16

The process of how the ectoderm begins to give rise to the Nervous System

Neurulation

17

4 stages for the ectodermal cells to become neural progenitor cells

Competence
Specification
Commitment
Differentiation

18

4 types of astrocytes... and where?

Fibrous, white matter
Protoplasmic, grey matter
Muller glia, retina
Bergmann glia, cerebellum

19

By which cells is the blood-brain barrier formed?

Vascular endothelial cells

20

The three states of microglia

Resting "ramified"
Active
Phagocytic

21

Where are microglia progenitors found?

Myeloid lineage

22

Satellite (glial) cells are found on...

Dorsal root sensory ganglia
Sympathetic ganglia
Parasympathetic ganglia

23

They cover axon terminals at
the skeletal neuromuscular junction

Terminal glia

24

In what layer of the retina are Muller glia found?

Inner nuclear layer

25

What is reactive gliosis?

The injury response of Müller glia to retinal injury and disease by changing their morphology, biochemistry and physiology

26

Define proprioception

The sense of "being"

27

Define nociception

Response to (potentially) harmful stimuli

28

Ascensory pathways

Spinothalamic from skin to thalamus (pain and temperature)
Dorsal column from skin, joints to somatosensory cortex (touch and proprioception)

29

Relationship between enteric NS and parasympathetic NS

The enteric NS can act as an effector system for the parasympathetic (their neurons are connected)

30

Which autonomic PNS subdivision has a ganglia?

Sympathetic NS

31

Difference between parasympathetic and sympathetic NS axons

Long (paras.)
Short (symp.)

32

The parasympathetic and the sympathetic NS recruit information from which nerves in the spinal cord?

Cranial and sacral (paras.)
Thoracic and lumbar (symp.)

33

Temporal lobe

Auditory cortex and memory (hippocampus)

34

Occipital lobe

Visual cortex

35

Frontal lobe

Motor cortex and high reasoning

36

Parietal lobe

Sensory cortex

37

The forebrain is made up of...

Diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus)
Telencephalon (cerebral cortex, basal ganglia)

38

What part of the brain is responsible of smell and where is it?

Olfactory bulb (forebrain)

39

The midbrain is made up of...

Superior culliculus (optic tectum)
Inferior colliculus (nucleus of the auditory pathway)

40

What are the visceral cranial nerves?

Oculomotor (III)
Glossopharyngeal (VII)
Vagus (X)

41

What fibres are responsible for motor timing in the cerebellum?

Climbing fibres

42

How many synapses does each granule cell form with Purkinje cells in the cerebellum?

1

43

One climbing fibre connects directly to...

1 Purkinje cell

44

How many synapses between a climbing fibre and a Purkinje cell?

300

45

Interneurons in the cerebellum and their function

Stellate and basket cells (surround inhibition)
Golgi cells (inhibitory feedback to control the gain of granule cells input to Purkinje cells)

46

How does LTD affect the cerebellum?

It decreases the efficacy of parallel fibre and climbing fibre synapse transmission with Purkinje cells

47

What do climbing fibres carry in the cerebellum?

Error signals that cause parallel fibre inputs to be weakened (plasticity of the synapses between parallel fibres and Purkinje cells)

48

Morphogens are...

Diffusible proteins

49

Do all induction signals come from morphogens?

NO

50

Where is Shh produced?

In the notochord and in the floor plate

51

The neuroepithelium can be divided into different... that will give rise to specific kinds of cells

Progenitor domains

52

One oligodendrocyte myelinates...

Many axons

53

One Schwann cell myelinates...

One axon

54

One Schwann cell demyelinates...

Many axons

55

Cell phases position in the inter kinetic nuclear migration

S (basal)
G2 (apical)
M (apical)
G1 (apical)
S (basal)

56

3H thymidine is used to directly measure...

Cell proliferation
It's a radioactive nucleoside

57

Where does tangential migration start? Where is it led?

It starts in the MGE (medial ganglionic eminence, subpallium) and goes to the neocortex (pallium)

58

Is cell division symmetric or asymmetric in the ventricular zone?

Asymmetric

59

Is cell division symmetric or asymmetric in the subventricular zone?

Symmetric

60

Are pyramidal neurons excitatory or inhibitory in the cortex?

Excitatory

61

Where do pyramidal neurons originate in the cortex?

Local ventricular zone

62

What cells does tangential migration involve?

Inhibitory cortical interneurons

63

What type of cells are encountered in the hippocampus? What are their axons?

Granule cells (mossy fibres)
Pyramidal cells (Schaffer collaterals)

64

What cortical layers are involved with thalamic input?

Layers 4 and 6

65

Cortical layer 5 sends axons to...

The spinal cord and the striatum

66

Cells types in the cortex

Pyramidal (excitatory)
Basket and clutch cells (inhibitory)

67

Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic NS are regulated by the...

Hypothalamus

68

What can you find in a neurones cytoskeleton?

Microtubules (anterograde and retrograde transport of organelles and molecules, made of tubuline)
Microfilaments (made of actine)
Neurofilaments (core of the axon)

69

Areas of the cortex involved in speech

Wernicke's area (lateral sulcus - parietal and temporal lobe, understanding of speech and choosing the right words)
Broca's area (frontal lobe, movements for speech)

70

Diploblastic are organisms with only...

2 germ layers (mesoderm is missing)

71

Neural crest fate

Cranial (skin, Schwann cells, connective tissues)
Vagal and lumbo-sacral (enteric NS)
Trunk (melanocytes, Schwann cells, sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia, medullar cells)

72

Oligodendrocytes progenitors' markers

Sox10
Pgdfra
Olig2

73

Astrocytes marker

Fgfr3, Pdgfra

74

Where do astrocytes come from?

Radial glia (embryogenesis)
Transformation of radial glia at the end of neurogenesis

75

Where do microglia come from? Where do they go?

Myeloid lineage (bone marrow) → neural tube, where they become embryonic microglia.
They are mostly found in the white matter.

76

What glial cells proliferate extensively?

Oligodendrocytes and microglia. NOT astrocytes.

77

What do non-myelinating Schwann cells do?

They surround small non-myelinated axons

78

What are terminal glia involved in?

They cover axon terminals at the skeletal neuromuscular junction

79

Muller glia response to damaged retina

Reactive gliosis

80

Schwann cells response to peripheral nerve injury

They phagocytise their own myelin and recruit macrophages to clean up residues.
They remyelinate axons but the sheaths are now thinner.

81

Where are Bergmann glia found?

Purkinje cell layer, cerebellum

82

What are mature Bergmann glia? What do they express?

Astrocytes with long processes that cross the molecular layer. They express GABA and glutamate transporters.

83

What do Bergmann glia do in the developing cerebellum?

They guide radial migration of immature neurons

84

Where do Bergmann glia originate?

In the 4th ventricle from neuroepithelial cells. They migrate from the VZ to the mantle zone.

85

What does the alar plate originate?

The dorsal horn of the spinal cord

86

A protein necessary for correct cell migration along radial glia in the cerebral cortex...

Reelin, produced by Cajal-Retzius cells close to the pial surface

87

Histogenesis in the neural tube...

Progression defines regionality

88

The "knee jerk" circuit is/has...

Monosynaptic
1 motor neuron
1 sensory neuron

89

Growth cone guidance is influenced by...

CAMs (adhesion to the substrate)
Guiding factor (attraction/repulsion)

90

Examples of growth cone guidance

Depolymerisation of actine (turn left/right)
Stabilisation of microtubules (go forward)
Destabilisation of microtubules (turn)

91

An axon is finding its topographic location. What is it influenced by?

Ephrine and eph gradients.
Interaction of ephrine with eph will inhibit axonal growth.

92

Chemoaffinity hypothesis

Complementary chemical markers on growing axons and their target

93

Each muscle is innervated by how many nerves?

2

94

Size of a large soma

70-100 micrometers

95

What organs are located in the ventricles? What are they responsible of?

Circumventricular organs. Responsible for linkage between the CNS and the peripheral blood stream.

96

The 5th lobe...

Limbic lobe, around the corpus callosum

97

Main input to the cerebellum comes from what system?

Vestibular system

98

The limbic system is made up of...

Hippocampus and amigdala

99

Thalamic nuclei

Specific
Associative
Diffuse

100

Where do climbing fibres found in the cerebellum come from?

Inferior olive, medulla

101

Mossy fibers in the cerebellum relay sensory information from...

The pons

102

Role of the enteric NS

Control of secretion and muscular activity of the digestive system from the esophagus to the rectum

103

What types of neurons are found in the enteric NS and where?

Sensory + motor neurons and interneurons in the walls of the gastrointestinal system

104

Motor proteins involved in neuron microtubules transport

Kinesin and dynein

105

Where are mitochondria found in neurons?

Soma, dendrites, axons

106

Where do oligodendrocytes originate?

Ventral zone of the spinal cord and of the telencephalon

107

The olfactory bulb is supplied with new neurons by...

The adult SV zone

108

Adults stem cells are remnants of...

The embryonic neuroepithelium

109

Define neurovascular coupling

Relationship between local neural activity and the changes in cerebral blood flow

110

What is the procedural region?

Cluster of ectodermal cells that acquire the potential to give rise to neuronal precursors

111

The NGF is taken up by which neurons?

Sympathetic neurons (retrograde transport)

112

What do axons do to find their targets?

Defasciculation
Enter, branch, stay in place
Find topographic location
Find layer
Connect with target