Flashcards in Revision Deck (102):
What nerves supply the external oblique muscles?
Lower intercostal nerves (ventral rami T7-T11) and subcostal nerve
What nerves supply the internal oblique muscles?
Lower intercostal nerves (ventral rami T7-T11), subcostal nerve and L1
What nerves supply the transverse abdominus muscles?
Lower intercostal nerves, subcostal nerve and L1
What nerves supply the rectus abdominus muscles?
Lower intercostal nerves
What is the action of the internal and external oblique muscles?
Flex and rotate trunk
What is the action of the transverse abdominus muscles?
Compress and support abdominal viscera
What is the action of the rectus abdominus muscles?
Flexes trunk and tilts pelvis
What is the rectus sheath composed of?
Aponeuroses of transverse abdominus, internal oblique and external oblique
Above the level of the arcuate line, which layers of the aponeurosis pass in front of the rectus muscles?
External oblique and half of the internal oblique
What is the action of psoas major?
Flexion at hip joint
What are the contents of the male inguinal canal?
Blood and lymph
What are the contents of the female inguinal canal?
Round ligament of uterus
Blood and lymph
The anterior wall of the inguinal canal is formed by the aponeurosis of which muscle?
Abdominal contents pushing through a weak spot in the posterior wall of the inguinal canal is called?
A congenital weakness in the deep inguinal ring which abdominal contents pass through results in?
Which type of peritoneum is sensitive to pain?
Name the retroperitoneal organs
Pancreas (except tail)
Name the intraperitoneal organs
At what vertebral level does the celiac trunk emerge from the abdominal aorta?
At what vertebral level does the SMA emerge from the abdominal aorta?
At what vertebral level do the renal arteries emerge from the abdominal aorta?
At what vertebral level does the IMA emerge from the abdominal aorta?
At what vertebral level does the abdominal aorta bifurcate to form the 2 common iliac arteries?
At what vertebral level do the common iliac arteries bifurcate to form the external and internal iliac arteries?
What arteries does the celiac trunk give off?
Common hepatic artery
Left gastric artery
Which part of the gut is supplied by the celiac trunk?
Which part of the gut is supplied by the SMA?
Which part of the gut is supplied by the IMA?
At what vertebral level does the oesophagus pass through the diaphragm and which other structures pass through with it?
Left inferior phrenic vessels
What is the function of the pyloric sphincter?
Controls flow of chyme between pylorus of stomach and duodenum
Which layer of the stomach forms rugae?
Which ligament separates the right and left lobes of the liver?
The ligamentum teres is the remnant of which embryological structure?
Left fetal umbilical vein
The hepatic portal vein is formed by the union of which 2 vessels?
Superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein
What structures are present at the porta hepatis on the posterior surface of liver?
Hepatic portal vein
Common hepatic duct
Name the duct that is formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct
Common bile duct
Where is bile produced?
Where is bile stored?
What is the surface marking of the gallbladder?
9th costal cartilage at the midclavicular line on the right hand side
What is the surface marking of the spleen?
Lies obliquely along the axis of the 10th rib
Name 2 functions of the spleen
Acts as a filter for blood by removing old or damaged red blood cells
Important role in immune responses
During a cholecystectomy, what artery must the surgeon be careful to avoid?
Cystic artery in Calot's triangle
What are the teniae coli made up of?
3 bands of longitudinal muscle
How are the haustra formed?
Contraction of teniae coli
Which artery supplies the superior 1/3 of the rectum?
Superior rectal artery - branch of IMA
What artery supplies the middle 1/3 of the rectum?
Middle rectal artery - branch of internal iliac
Which artery supplies the inferior 1/3 of the rectum?
Inferior rectal artery - branch of internal iliac
What vertebral level do the kidneys lie at?
What vertebral level does the hilum of the kidney lie at?
L1 (transpyloric plane)
Which vein drains into the left renal vein?
Left gonadal vein
Are the ureters retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal?
Which type of epithelium lines the ureters?
Stratified transitional epithelium
Which type of tissue are the walls of the bladder composed of?
Which type of epithelium lines the bladder?
Stratified transitional epithelium
Which arteries supply the thyroid gland?
Superior thyroid artery (branch of ECA)
Inferior thyroid artery (branch of subclavian)
Which arteries mainly supply the parathyroid glands?
Inferior thyroid arteries
What do the parathyroid glands release?
What effect does PTH have on plasma calcium levels?
Increases plasma calcium
Which surface of the thyroid gland do the parathyroid glands lie on?
Lateral half of posterior surface
What substance is produced in the zona reticularis of the suprarenal glands?
Sex hormones e.g. testosterone
What substance is produced in the zona fasiculataof the suprarenal glands?
What substance is produced in the zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal glands?
What substance is produced in the medulla of the suprarenal glands?
Catecholamines e.g. norepinephrine
What is the action of orbicularis oculi?
Closes the eye
Which muscle gives motor innervation to orbicularis oculi?
Which branch of the facial nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior tongue?
Which branch of the trigeminal nerve provides motor and sensory innervation?
Which nerve innervates the parotid salivary gland?
Which nerve innervates the submandibular salivary gland?
Which nerve innervates the sublingual salivary gland?
Which muscle does the parotid duct pierce to enter the oral cavity?
Which muscles elevate the hyoid bone?
Which muscles depress the hyoid bone?
Which muscles act to open the jaw and depress the mandible?
With help from:
Which muscles of mastication close the jaw?
Which of the 2 pterygoid muscles is largest?
What opens into the superior meatus?
Posterior ethmoid air cells
What opens into the middle meatus?
Anterior and middle ethmoid air cells
What opens into the inferior meatus?
Which nerves carry taste sensation from anterior 1/3 tongue?
Chorda tympani branch of CN VII
Which nerves carry general sensory fibres from anterior 1/3 tongue?
Which nerves carry taste sensation from posterior 1/3 tongue?
Which nerves carry general sensory fibres from posterior 1/3 tongue?
What type of epithelium is present on the dorsal surface of the tongue?
Keratinised stratified squamous epithelium
What are the surface elevations on the dorsal 1/3 of the tongue produced by?
Submucosal lymphoid tissue collections
At what age does the anterior fontanelle of the skull fuse?
At what age does the posterior fontanelle of the skull close?
Which embryological structure forms the lateral ventricles?
Which embryological structure forms the 3rd ventricle?
Which embryological structure forms the midbrain
Which embryological structure forms the pons?
Which embryological structure forms the medulla?
Which part of the neural tube do the optic vesicles grow out from?
What is the function of the cerebellum?
Balance and motor coordination
Which fissure splits the cerebellum into a small anterior and a large posterior lobe?
Which type of fibres are carried in the corpus callosum?
Which type of fibres are carried in the internal capsule?
At what vertebral level does the spinal cord terminate in adults?
At what vertebral level would you carry out a lumbar puncture?
Which dural venous sinus runs superior to the falx cerebri?
Superior sagittal sinus
Which dural venous sinus lies beside the pituitary fossa?