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what are the disciplinary approaches to health

Behavioural: focuses on personal and individual actions. (e.g being physically active, using sunscreen)

Social: focuses on personal and individual actions. For example: don’t be poor, being born into a nice family

Biomedical: biology and medicine

Biological: what we are born with


PH in society

Public health strives for a fairer, more just, healthier, kinder world

- Subjective, PH means different things to different people

- PH covers a wide scope meaning its meanings and values are diverse


Primary secondary and Tertiary prevention

Primary: implementing programs and services to prevent disease from occurring

Secondary: early effective treatment to stop progress and shorten duration of disease

Tertiary: stabilising the disease process; preventing after effects of long-term impairments/disabilities


how has public health improved overtime

1. The development of sanitary practises
2. Quarantine: separating people who are sick from people who are not sick

- Eyam and the plague: was a quarantined town separated from the plague. They didn’t let anyone in or out in an attempt to reduce disease. 

- Cholera quarantine: people who came from a town with cholera were quarantined, ships weren’t allowed to dock. Sick people were separated in buildings and ships. Cholera pandemics consecutively occur, the disease is still around today as is quarantine 

- Leprosy: there was leper colonies, an attempt to quarantine: a slowly progressing bacterial infection, affects the skin, nose, eyes as the nerve endings in the body are destroyed. People who had the disease were shunned, it was a dreaded disease. People are still living in these colonies


theories of disease causation

Miasma Theory: inhaling bad smells from filth. An obsolete theory; on the right track to how diseases are caused - bad airs and poisonous vapors cause diseases.

Supernatural theory: gods wrath 

Germ or contagion theory: waterborne or airborne pathogens


Edward jenner

Developed the worlds first vaccine/discovered vaccinations


Charles winslow

- had a broader and more realistic expectation of public health and disease. His definition involves:
- Preventing disease
- Prolonging life ‘promoting health and wellbeing 
- Sanitization of the environment 
- Education 
- Standard of living adequate 
- Emphasized education, sanitation and socially aware approaches


edwin chadwick

Believed getting rid of smells and filth would keep you healthy.
He investigated sanitation to show the link between living conditions and disease and life expectancy


john snow

Showed a direct relationship between disease and germs
- Investigated cholera
- Removed handle on broad street to diminish cholera cases


Rudolph Virchow

Virchow (1821-1902) 
Father of modern pathology. Demonstrated that disease isn’t purely biological but is influenced by social factors 
- the founder of social medicine


fredrick Engels

Researched and wrote about working and living conditions between health


Robert Koch

Founder of bacteriology. Discovered  and developed new research methods to isolate bacteria 


Kochs postulates

Kochs postulates: all four have to be met to prove something is caused by a specific organism 
1. The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from disease but should not be found in healthy organisms 
2. The micro organism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture 
3. The cultured microorganism should cause disease the introduced into the healthy organism 
4. The microorganism must be re-isolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host ad be identified as being identical to the original causative agent.


the old public health

Living conditions
water disposal
access to clean food and water


the new public health

Moving from a Moving from a behaviorists point of view to a social point of view 
- Social and political approach to health 
- Action on social determinants 
- Intersectional action
- Healthy public policy 
- Environments for health 
- Sustainable development 
- Equity in health 
- Housing, income, employment are key determinants of health and wellbeing. Outside the health system but are still linked to health. 


The NHPA's
what are they

Established in responce to who for all 2000
Injury prevention and control (1996)
Mental health (1996)
Cancer control (1996)
Cardiovascular health (1996)
Diabetes mellitus (1997)
Asthma and respiratory conditions (1999, 2016)
Arthritis & musculoskeletal conditions (2002)
Obesity (2008)
Dementia (2012)
Eye health (2016)


Injury prevention and control

- A major source of health care costs
- 500 000 people were injured severely enough to warrant hospital admission in 2013-2014.
- Leading cause of mortality, morbidity and permanent disability in Australia


mental health

- Stigmatisation
- 45% of Australian’s between 16-85 will experience a mental disorder at some time
- high direct and indirect costs
- leading cause of non fatal BOD and injury


cancer control

- These eight cancers accounted for 53% of all cancer deaths in 2005.
- All cancers – 19% of BoD
- Direct cost $2.8 billion 00/01


cardiovascular disease

- The largest cause premature death in Australia in 2012 (30% of all deaths)
- 1 in 5 Australian adults reported cardiovascular disease in 2011-2012



- Contributes significantly to ill health, disability, poor QoL and premature deaths
- Accounted for 10% of deaths in 2012
- 5.4% of adults had diabetes in 2011-12



- Affects people of all ages – particularly young children
- Poorer ratings of health
- High levels of psychological distress


arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions

- More than 100 forms
- Highly prevalent
- Large contributors to pain, illness & disability
- 2001 6+million
- Direct costs - $4.7bill 00/01



- One in four Australian adults are obese
- Obesity causes a range of health problems
- Costs taxpayers $1.5 billion in direct health care costs each year



- An umbrella term which covers more than 100 different brain disorders
- One in ten Australians ages 65 and older had dementia in 2015
- 3 in 10 Australians ages 85 and older has dementia in 2015
- 342,800 Australians had dementia in 2015. It is estimates that there will be approximately 900,000 by 2050
- Costly indirectly and directly


aims of the NHPA's

1. To reduce burden of disease (75% of BoD in Australia is due to the NHPA)
2. Target areas that impose high social and financial costs
3. Collaborative action to achieve significant and cost-effective advances


themes of the NHPA's

- Chronic diseases of lifestyle
- Develop & progress continuously
- Do not resolve spontaneously
- Rarely ‘cured’
- Require ongoing management


define epidemiology

Definition: ‘The study of the distribution and determinants of health - related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems’

In short
- Looks at health at a population level
- Describes patterns of disease in terms of who gets what, where and when


The three main goals of epidemiology

- Describe disease patterns in human population
- Identify causes of diseases (aetiology)
- Provide data for the management, evaluation and planning of services for the prevention, control and treatment of disease


The biological determinants