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How long after exercise does appetite turn to control values?

Appetite returns to control values after 30-60 min.


What is type 1 diabetes?

where the pancreas produces little or no insulin.


Two ways to help prevent type 1 diabetes?

By keeping their blood sugar in a target range

Regular medical check-ups to detect early signs of complications. 


What is hypertension?

Long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. 

(To prevent eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables as well as eating foods low in salt (sodium) and high in potassium as this can lower your blood pressure)


What is coronary heart disease?

A disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle. When plaque builds up in the arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis. The build-up of plaque occurs over many years.

(To prevent eat a low-fat, high-fibre diet with low levels of salt)


What is cerebrovascular disease?

Includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.

Narrowed cerebral arteries can lead to ischemic stroke, but continually elevated blood pressure can also cause tearing of vessels, leading to a haemorrhagic stroke.

(To prevent eat a low fat diet and therefore lowering cholesterol)


Define cancer?

A term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues.


What bone density would be described as osteoporosis?

Having a bone mineral content or bone mineral density of more than 2.5 SD below the young normal mean


Between what 2 percentages does intracellular make up?

Intracellular Fluid (60-70%) Extracellular Fluid (30-40%)


Three roles of fatty acids.

Insulation - reduces heat loss

Protection of internal organs.

Transport carriers of fat soluble vitamins (i.e. A, D, E and K)


Three benefits of omega 3

Helps support visual and cognitive development

Most abundant in brain and retina

Regulates cell activity and cardiovascular function


Three benefits of omega 6

Supports brain development

Stimulation of growth

Maintenance of skin and hair growth


Two supplements that increase fat oxidation?

Bitter orange – Thought to activates beta oxidation & appetite suppression

Caffeine - Thought to stimulate lipolysis

Green tea – Thought to stimulate lipolysis, oxidative properties, maintain better glycaemic control after a glucose load

Carnitine – Believed to help transport of FA’s into mitochondria


What is gestational diabetes?

causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health.


What is type 2 diabetes?

where the body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for it. But, over time it isn't able to keep up and can't make enough insulin to keep your blood glucose at normal levels.


What is fatigue?

Feeling weak to being constantly tired or lacking energy.


What is Functional overreaching?

Intense training equals drop in performance (Recovery = Days)


What is Functional overtraining?

Leading to temporary drop in performance but leads to raise in performance
(recovery = Days-weeks)


What is Non-functional overreaching?

When intensified training continues, in the absence of adequate recovery leading to stagnation or drop In performance (recovery = Weeks-Months)


What is Overtraining syndrome?

Not just performance but several biological, neurochemical and hormonal mechanisms. Diagnosis can only be made by excluding all other possible influences on changes in performance and mood state.


Muscle and liver Glycogen

Muscle Glycogen provides energy for muscular contraction (100-400g in 70 kg man).

Liver Glycogen provides energy for all tissues (80-100g in 70 kg man).


heavy/moderate/light carbohydrate recommendations

Heavy (>3h/d): 8-10 g CHO/kg body weight

Moderate (1-2h/d): 6-7 g CHO/kg body weight

Light (<1h/d): 4-5 g CHO/kg body weight


Cognitive function - low or high GI?

LGI breakfast improved cognitive function tests compared with HGI breakfast and breakfast omission.
Differences most pronounced on most demanding tests.


Colonic fermentation of CHO

Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and resistant starch (RS) are fermented by bacteria in the large intestine.

At least 30g CHO needed to enter the colon each day to support the growth of bacteria.

Releases short chain fatty acids that suppress appetite and increase insulin sensitivity.


Protein recommendations

Recommend 1.2 to 2.0 g/kg/d. Higher intakes may be indicated for short periods during intensified training or when reducing energy intake.


What does Saturated mean?

Carry maximum number of hydrogen atoms (carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen


What does Unsaturated Monounsaturated mean?

One double bond with a neighbouring carbon


What does Polyunsaturated mean/

More than one double bond



In order for cholesterol to travel through blood, it must attach itself to small fat-carrying proteins called lipoproteins.

The higher the proportion of protein to lipid in the lipoprotein, the greater is its density.

The greater the density of the lipoprotein, the more cholesterol it is transporting around to your organs.


What is the definition of appetite?

a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food.