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Flashcards in Rhetorical Devices Deck (52):


1. Allegory is a symbolism device where the meaning of a greater, often abstract, concept is conveyed with the aid of a more tangible object or idea being used as an example.

2. There's plenty of allegory that is also great literature.

3. Faith is like a stony uphill climb: a single stumble might send you sprawling but belief and steadfastness will see you to the very top.

"Animal Farm" is an example where the actions of the animals on the farm are used to expose the greed and corruption of the Communist Revolution.



1. (noun) - the repetition of usually initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables.

2. The poet effectively used an alliteration to enhance his writing.

3. Walter walked wearily while wondering where Wally was.

Garry’s giraffe gobbled gooseberries greedily, getting good at grabbing goodies.



-a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance.

* "The rise in poverty will unlock the Pandora’s box of crimes."
Example of Allusion in everyday speech:
“Stop acting like my ex-husband please.”
Example of Allusion in Literature:
“All night the dread less Angel unpursu’d

Through Heav’ns wide Champain held his way, till Morn,

Wak’t by the circling Hours, with rosie hand

Unbarr’d the gates of Light. There is a Cave

Within the Mount of God, fast by his Throne”
Example of Allusion in a sentence:
The author’s new book contains an allusion to mythological gods.



Analogy (noun): a comparison in which an idea or a thing is compared to another thing that is quite different from it

Used in a sentence: As always, the dream analogy served as extremely helpful.

You are as annoying as nails on a chalkboard.
She was offended when I told her that she was as flaky as a snowstorm.



definition: short little scene or story taken from personal experiences; noun
example: Creed told many anecdotes about his outrageous adventures.
"After the long Ohio winter, I was so happy to see the first signs of spring that I ran outside as soon as I saw our first flower blooming. I plucked the dewy, white blossom and tucked it into my hair band and went about my day with joy in my heart. Unfortunately, I didn't notice that my big white flower had been host to a dozen or so tiny bugs, that apparently enjoyed a new home in the warmth and security of my hair. I was soon itching and twitching like a scrappy dog. Next time I stop to smell the flowers, I'll make sure I'll do it with my eyes wide open."



Antithesis: (noun) Contrast or oppostion between two things or idea

Friends of the actress say she is quite the antithesis of her giddy and frivolous character.
"We must learn to live together as brothers or perish together as fools." - Martin Luther King, Jr.
“Patience is bitter, but it has a sweet fruit.” - Aristotle



Definition: a noun, noun phrase, or a series of nouns that are placed to a word or phrase to identify it or rename it

Authors use appositives to rename or make sure the audience understands the word and what it is.

Ex: My best friend, Lee is going for a walk.

Ex: Don't leave your shoes out, or my dog, Ollie, will eat them.



1) a) a regional variety of language distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation from other regional varieties and constituting together with them a single language

b) one of two or more cognate languages

c) a variety of a language used by the members of a group

d) a variety of language whose identity is fixed by a factor other than geography (as social class)

2) manner or means of expressing oneself

2. A sentence using the term correctly

If you go to different parts of the United States, you will find different dialects that can make communication difficult.

3. Two examples demonstrating the term -- these may be borrowed or original

a) people from Wisconsin speak upper midwestern dialect
b) Bostonians speak Boston urban dialect

4. Source information for any of the items above




1. a definition of the term with part of speech
Noun-The lines spoken by a character or characters in a play, essay, story, or novel, especially a conversation between two characters, or a literary work that takes the form of such a discussion (e.g., Plato's Republic).

2. a sentence using the term correctly
In the play between the first two characters there was a very long dialogue that affected us all.

3. two examples demonstrating the term -- these may be borrowed or original
Example 1:
BENVOLIO Good morning, cousin.
Is it morning already?
Yes, it's 9:00 o'clock.
The hours seem so sad as they just linger on. Was that my father who left in such a hurry?
Yes, it was. Tell me, what is it that makes you so sad and causes time to pass so slowly?
I just don't have what's needed to make time fly.
In love are you?
Out of love?
Out of favor with the one I love.



Diction: word choice and use of words in a work that convey a certain writing style or tone
-Daniel reads quickly, but his diction is precise enough that no words are lost.
-2 Examples:
Example #1
Keats in his “Ode to the Grecian Urn” uses formal diction to achieve a certain effect. He goes:
“Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard
Are sweeter: therefore, ye soft pipes, play on”
Notice the use of formal “ye” instead of informal “you”. The formality here is due to the respect the urn inspires in Keats. In the same poem he says:
“Ah, happy, happy boughs! that cannot shed
Your leaves, nor ever bid the spring adieu.”
It is more formal to use “adieu” than to say “goodbye”.
Example 2:
Writers’ skillfully choose words to develop a certain tone and atmosphere in their works. Read the following excerpt from a short story “The School” by Donald Barthelme:



2. The student had to write citations that she used for her essay,
3. Russell, Tony, Allen Brizee, and Elizabeth Angeli. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 4 Apr. 2010. Web. 20 July 2010.

Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12).



An epiphany is a presentation, sometimes symbolically, of a moment of revelation or insight. It is a noun.
2. An example using the word epiphany could be...
My near death experience caused me to have an epiphany about how fragile human life is.
3. Examples of epiphanies include...
“I used to smoke a lot. Everyone let me know that it was bad for my health however, I didn’t pay any notice. One day I saw my two years of age offspring trying for a used cigarette within an ashtray. Seeing this, abruptly it dawned upon me how terrible smoking was and I stopped smoking.”

"Growing up in the suburbs, I never really saw how a city worked. I always thought of it as towering buildings and backed-up traffic. As soon as I visited parts of the city I began to see homeless people, people with guns in their pockets, busted windows, and rotting wood. I realized that I was lucky since I had a decent home and a life without crime."



Definition: "The substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant." Euphemism is a noun.

2.) Euphemism is an example of a literary device college students can use to make their writing more pleasing to their college professors.

3.) "You are becoming a little thin on top." This refers to somebody becoming bald.
"He is always tired and emotional" This refers to someone who is drunk.
"He is a special child." This harsh example refers to somebody who has a disability of some sort.


extended metaphor

) Definition:
Extended Metaphor (n).- a metaphor introduced and then further developed throughout all or part of a literary work, especially a poem.

2.) Use in a sentence:
An extended metaphor may act as a central theme, for example where it is used as the primary vehicle of a poem and is used repeatedly and in different forms.

3.) Examples:
Robert Frost uses an extended metaphor to compare two roads to various life paths and the weighty decision of which direction to follow in his famous poem, "The Road Not Taken".

“But soft! What light through yonder window breaks?
It is the East, and Juliet is the sun!
Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon,
Who is already sick and pale with grief.”
(Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet)

Shakespeare has made use of extended metaphor by comparing “Juliet” with the “sun”.



incorrect argument or conjunction statement based on an illogical reason (illogical argument)
2. We often use fallacies when we want to win an argument.
3. Examples:
Everybody buys their clothes from that store, so it must be a really great store.
If you don't care about global warming, then you must be a terrible person.




Definition: a note with added information that is placed below the text on a printed page

Sentence: If someone wants to find out more information on the text he or she is reading, they should read the footnote.

It is well known that patients who suffer from Crohn’s and Colitis can have many debilitating symptoms.¹

¹See the CCFA.org website for more information about the symptoms that Crohn’s and Colitis patients may experience.

A variety of research suggests that developing basic literacy skills in early childhood can contribute to greater success in acquiring strong comprehension skills later in school.²

²A variety of research based articles and ideas for developing early learning skills can be found at www.readingrockets.org.


Definition: A note, added at the end of a text (noun)

Sentence: Reference the endnote, located at the end of a section or text, to learn more about the passage.



a general statement : a statement about a group of people or things that is based on only a few people or things in that group. (noun)
2. Someone makes the generalization that homework is hard because a student is struggling with it.
3. Examples:
Rich people are greedy.
It is easy to learn how to drive.



1) A particular type or category of literature or art

Nancy Drew books fall into the mystery genre.

Genre examples:
folk art



1.A great exaggeration of the truth in order to prove a point.
2.Obvious and intentional exaggeration.

The word 'hyperbole,' derives from the greek roots: 'hyper-' meaning hyper, and '-bolḗ' meaning a throw. This combined meaning to "to throw unbelievably far," or "over-casting." From the root it is easy to say that the word was chosen, for it of itself is a hyperbole.

Used in a sentence: This isn't mere hyperbole, this isn't myth, this is a fact.

My grandmother is as old as the hills.
Your suitcase weighs a ton!
She is as heavy as an elephant!
I am dying of shame.
I am trying to solve a million issues these days.
I'm so hungry I could eat a horse!



Visually descriptive or figurative language. Imagery is a noun

2. The use of imagery in his essay was very descriptive and made me feel as though everything he was talking about was happening in real life.

3. On a starry winter night in Portugal
Where the ocean kissed the southern shore
There a dream I never thought would come to pass
Came and went like time spent through an hourglass
-Teena Marie, “Portuguese Love”

A host, of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
Continuous as the stars that shine
And twinkle on the Milky Way


irony and its types

Irony- Noun: The use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning

Situational Irony- Irony involving a situation in which actions have an effect that is opposite from what was intended, so that the outcome is contrary to what was expected.

Verbal Irony- Irony in which a person says or writes one thing and means another, or uses words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of the literal meaning.

Dramatic Irony- Noun: Irony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play.

Sentence w/ Term

1.) In the irony of war, the soldiers destroyed the country they were supposed to save.

2.) The situational irony in Romeo and Juliet was the unexpected deaths of the "star-crossed lovers".

3.) It was verbally ironic that the boy told his mother that her cake was as soft as a brick.

4.) In Romeo and Juliet, the dramatic irony in Romeo's speech is that we know how the play ends, but he and Juliet do not.

Examples of the Terms

Irony: 1.) The soldiers destroyed the country the were supposed to be protecting.
2.) Making a YouTube video about how YouTube is boring and useless.

Situational Irony: 1.) In Romeo and Juliet, the two lovers end up dying for each other.
2.) We have anti-technology websites.

Verbal Irony: 1.) His record was as clean as dirt.
2.) Their steaks were as tender as leather.

Dramatic Irony: 1.) In Romeo and Juliet, we know that Juliet took a sleeping potion, but Romeo thinks she is dead and kills himself.
2.) Two people are having trouble with their marriage, so both agree to counselling, but the man is actually having an affair.



1) an act or instance of placing close together or side by side, especially for comparison or contrast.
2) the state of being close together or side by side.


"It's the juxtaposition of all three elements that adds in the difficulty."

Examples: Comparing two items
- Fact and Fiction
- Hot and Cold



A figure of speech in which agreement is expressed by the act of denying the opposite.
It is a noun.
2.) " He's no dummy."
" I'm really glad that you have come to visit," said the spider to the fly.
3.) The definition of the word Litotes, further confused the girl as she searched for it as homework for AP English.



. Noun. A dramatic form that exaggerates emotion and emphasizes plot or action at the expense of characterism.

2. If you add some twists and turns to the story you will have some real melodrama.

3. -The best examples of melodrama are in old black and white films where there is a hero who falls for the girl and the villain takes the girl to get at the hero. In the end the hero saves the girl and all is good

-Another example of melodrama is in the movie twilight where the is overly exaggerated drama between the hero and the girl so much that it takes away for the actual characters and the story itself.



Noun: A figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance.

2. The unexpected breaking of his pencil when he was only a few sentences in was a metaphor for the difficulties to come in writing the long paper.

3. Its eyes were an inferno, blazing in the dark night.

The man's heart was fragile glass, easily shattered by any bad news that came his way.


Metonymy or synecdoche

Definition of Metonymy: Noun: a figure of speech consisting of the use of the name of one thing for that of another of which it is an attribute or with which it is associated.
2. Sentence using Metonymy: The rhetorical strategy of describing something indirectly by referring to things around it is a metonymy.
3. Ex. 1) The pen is mightier than the sword. Refers that the power of literary works is greater than military force.
Ex. 2) We have always remained loyal to the crown. This means the people are loyal to the king or the ruler o their country.
4. "Categories You Should Follow." Answers. Answers Corporation, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.
"Metonymy." Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 18 Sept. 2014.

1.) Definition of Synecdoche- (n.) a literary device in which a portion of an object is used to represent the entire object.
2.) Sentence employing Synecdoche- "Synecdoches are ways in which we construct our understanding of the whole, although we only have access to the part." ~Laurel Richardson
3.) Examples of Synecdoche-
Ex.A) He smoothly slid on his glasses*.
Ex.B) An entourage of suits broke through the dawn's fog, the lifeless tendrils of smoke grasping at their forms.*



-A form of dramatic entertainment, comedic solo, or the like by a single speaker.
-A prolonged talk or discourse by a single speaker, especially one dominating or monopolizing a conversation.

In the first act of the play, one of the actors had a monologue that he said to the audience.

-a speech
-talking for a long period of time



Mood is a rhetoric device used to evoke certain feelings in the reader. The Mood isn't just one part of speech but it does often use descriptors such as adjectives and adverbs to set the tone.

2. A Dr. Suess book has a humorous mood.

3. An example of a calm and idyllic mood from Charles Dickens' Parwick Papers: "The river, reflecting the clear blue of the sky, glistened and sparkled as it flowed noiselessly on.” (YourDictionary, "Mood Examples")

An example of a melancholy mood from T.S. Elliot's "The Love-Song of J. Alfred Prufrock":

"The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window-panes
The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes
Licked its tongue into the corners of the evening
Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains,
Let fall upon its back the soot that falls from chimneys"



Motif (Noun) - a recurring subject, theme, idea, etc., especially in a literary, artistic, or musical work. (Noun)
2. The motif is not the same as the main theme, but has a similar type of approach to as how they are each found.
3. Similarly, there is another evident motif of a comparison between the exterior and the interior.
Another motif in the narrative is the small town life of Maycom, which depicts goodness and pleasantness in life.



An onomatopoeia is the formation of a word from a sound associated with what is named.
2. The cat meowed, the frog croaked, and the duck quacked are all examples of an onomatopoeia because the sounds are written in names of the actual animal noise.
3. Examples: meow, honk, boom, cuckoo, etc



Oxymoron: noun, a combination of words with opposite or very different meanings.

Use in a sentence: When you use an oxymoron you sound like you are contradicting yourself.

Two Examples:

He had to let go of the past like a sweet evil he had to come to.
As she watched the boys bully the other boy she couldn't believe this could happen as the boys had become humane beasts all a sudden



A statement that apparently contradicts itself, and yet may be true. Most paradoxes are known to be invalid arguements. They are very helpful in promoting critical thinking.



Parallelism- Is the use of matching grammatical elements (words, phrases, clauses) to express similar ideas. Used effectively- for example with paired items or items in a series- parallelism makes the links between related ideas clear and emphasizes connections. ( Patterns for College Writing)

Sentence using it correctly- Like father, like son. (http://literarydevices.net/parallelism/)
Examples (Patterns for College Writing)-
-Paired Items- As Deborah Tannen points out, men speak more than women in public but less that women at home (423).
-Items in a series- Amy Tan says, "I spend a great deal of my time thinking abut the power of language- the way it can evoke an emotion,a visual image, a complex idea, or a simple truth" (466).



Parody[n,v]: an imitation of a particular writer, artist, or a genre, exaggerating it deliberately to produce a comic effect. (Literarydevices.net)

2-Hollywood tends to /parody/ things from its past, turning it into a mockery.

3-Ex: Vampires Suck is a parody of Twilight.
Ex: Shakespeare's Sonnet 13 is parodying love poems popular at the time.


Passive and Active Voice

Active Voice - When the subject is doing something. (Action Verb)
Passive Voice - One of the two voices of verbs. A verb is in the passive voice when the subject of the sentence is acted upon by the verb.

Example of active voice in a sentence: "The sentence which used active voice stated, 'The girl hit the ball'."
Example of passive voice in a sentence: "The passive voice was used by me to write that paper."

Active Voice
The officer wrote a ticket.
The boy ran to the ball.
Harry ate six shrimp at dinner.
Sue changed the flat tire.
Passive Voice
The ticket was written by the officer
The ball was run to by the boy.
Six shrimp were eaten by Harry at dinner.
The flat tire was changed by Sue.



Paraphrase is a verb and a noun that means a restatement of a text or passage giving the meaning in another form, as for clearness; rewording.

Sentence: Ap students need to be able to correctly paraphrase any form of writing.

Original: Her life spanned years of incredible change for women.
Paraphrase: Mary lived through an era of liberating reform for women.

Original Passage:
In The Sopranos, the mob is besieged as much by inner infidelity as it is by the federal government. Early in the series, the greatest threat to Tony's Family is his own biological family. One of his closest associates turns witness for the FBI, his mother colludes with his uncle to contract a hit on Tony, and his kids click through Web sites that track the federal crackdown in Tony's gangland.
Paraphrased Passage:
In the first season of The Sopranos, Tony Soprano’s mobster activities are more threatened by members of his biological family than by agents of the federal government. This familial betrayal is multi-pronged. Tony’s closest friend and associate is an FBI informant, his mother and uncle are conspiring to have him killed, and his children are surfing the Web for information about his activities.



. The attribution of human nature or character to animals, inanimate objects, or abstract notions, especially as a rhetorical figure.

2.The act of attributing human qualities to an animal, object, or abstraction

Sentence: Giving a plant a human title and human characteristics is an example of personification.

Two Demonstrations:
1. The tornado swallowed the town.
2. The branch moaned as I swung from it.


POV and its types

Point of View:
Definition- Point of view is the angle of considering things, which shows us the opinion, or feelings of the individuals involved in a situation. (Noun)
What is the world like through the point of view of a dog?

1) I love to play baseball. (First Person)
2) You are going to your room. (Second Person)
3) He loves school. (Third Person)

First Person:
Involves the use of "I" or "we" and is often used in a story from the point of view of a character (often the protagonist). Also in the first person narrative, the narrator does participate in the action of story. With this point of view the reader gets to hear the thoughts of the narrator and see the world depicted in the story only through his or her eyes.
Example: To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee was told from the point of view Scout.
Second Person:
Involves the use of "you" and is often involving the reader in the text. The author usually has a specific purpose in mind and tries to get the reader involved in the action.
Example: Oh, the Places You'll Go by Dr. Suess

Third Person:
Involves the use of the pronouns "he", "she", "it" or "they" and can be broken down into omniscient or limited. Limited third person is where the narrator only knows one character's thoughts, feelings, and emotions. Omniscient third person is where the narrator knows all the feelings and thoughts of the characters.
Example (limited): The Giver by Lois Lawry
Example (omniscient): The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne

Third Person Omniscient:
def: a narrator who knows everything about all the characters and is all knowing
part of speech: he, him, she, her, it, they, them
sentence: Third person omniscient involves an all knowing narrator not only reports the facts but may also interpret events and relate the thoughts and feelings.
Example sentence:
The novels Middlemarch by George Eliot and Charlotte's Webb by E.B. White employs the third person omniscient point of view.

Third Person Limited:
def: a narrator whose knowledge is limited to one character, either major or minoR.
part of speech: " Miss Brill" , he, she, specific names

sentence using term: For third person limited
a person narrates an event of only one specific person as opposed to knowing all the characters thoughts.
Example: for Whom the Bell Tolla sticks with only the main characters thoughts.



Form of language that has no formal metrical structure.
Natural flow of speech, and ordinary grammatical structure rather than rhythmic structure
Nonfiction, Fictional, Heroic Proses, as well as Prose Poetry



the humorous use of a word or phrase so as to emphasize or suggest its different meanings or applications, or the use of words that are alike or nearly alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words.

She laughed as her friend unintentionally said a pun.

I wondered why the baseball was getting bigger. Then it hit me.
I'm glad I know sign language, it's pretty handy.



Definition- to repeat again and again; to say or do repeatedly: sometimes, to repeat.

Used in a sentence: Throughout practice, I had to reiterate my injury to my coach.

1). "You never spoke what did become you less
Than this; which to reiterate were sin."
2). "She kept reiterating her request"


rhetorical question

A question that does not demand the answer but puts emphasis on a point discussed
“Who knows?”
“Are you stupid?”
“Did you hear me?”
“Why not?”
Mostly, it is easy to spot a rhetorical question because of its position in the sentence. It occurs immediately after the comment made and states the opposite of it. The idea again is to make a point more prominent. Some rhetorical question examples are as follows. Keep in mind that they are also called tag questions if used in everyday conversation.



1. a technique to expose, criticize, or poke fun of the foolishness of a person/group/human nature in general by using humor, irony, or exaggerations

2. Writers will use satire to criticize current issues in a lighter way. Also, cartoons often use satire to make fun of political issues or people.

3. Saturday Night Live uses satire in many skits.
The Inspector General used satire to poke fun of the corruption in Russia.

"Satire - Definition and Examples of Satire." Literary Devices. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2014.

1. the use of irony,s arcasm, ridicule, or the like, inexposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly,etc.
2. a literary composition, inverse or prose, in which human folly and vice are held up to scorn, derision, or ridicule.
3. a literary genrec omprising such compositions.

2. His Monachomachia is in six verses, and is a satire to the monks.

3. Jonathon Swift wrote a satire called Gulliver's Travels, a book about the eighteenth century British Society.



A figure of speech; wherein two unlike things are clearly compared to one another. Usually introduced as like or as.
Origin: Latin word 'simile': something similar, from 'similis': like.

II. Example Sentences:
He enjoyed using similes in his poems to create depth.
Sometimes it took a ridiculous simile to make a point.
Many times a simile may contain the "as" word.

III. Demonstrations:
“In the eastern sky there was a yellow patch like a rug laid for the feet of the coming sun . . .”
“Her romantic mind was like the tiny boxes, one within the other, that come from the puzzling East . . .”
“The very mystery of him excited her curiosity like a door that had neither lock nor key.”



.In literature, stream of consciousness is a method of narration that describes in words the flow of thoughts in the minds of the characters.
This literary device is usually used in order to provide a narrative in the form of the character’s thoughts instead of using dialogue or description.

2. All writings by Virginia Woolff are a good example of literary stream of consciousness.

"Life is not a series of gig lamps symmetrically arranged; life is a luminous halo, a semi-transparent envelope surrounding us from the beginning of consciousness to the end." The Common Reader (1925)

“He is young Leopold, as in a retrospective arrangement, a mirror within a mirror (hey, presto!), he beholdeth himself. That young figure of then is seen, precious manly, walking on a nipping morning from the old house in Clambrassil to the high school, his book satchel on him bandolier wise, and in it a goodly hunk of wheaten loaf, a mother’s thought.”



The definition of summary is a brief statement or account of the main points of something.

sentence : When looking at the summary someone should be able to understand the main points of the story.

Two examples:
1) In the book Green Eggs and Ham Sam- I -Am tries to get his friend to eat the Green eggs and ham but he refuses. After a long effort the friend finally tries the green eggs and ham. He realizes that he loves green and ham and it very thankful he tried it.

2) A baby bird is hungry and goes to find his mother. He walks and asks everything he sees if it is his mother. After a long day of searching the baby bird comes across a snort which takes him home to his nest where his mother awaits with food. Then the two are reunited and after a long day the baby bird finds his mother.



Something used for or regarded as representing something else; a material object representing something (Noun).

The constantly ticking clock was a symbol of the limited time that the student had before their assignment was due.

1. Time is money: This is symbolic because it warns you that when you spend your time, you are giving up the opportunity to be doing something else with that time (just as when you spend your money, you give up your chance to do something else with the money). Further, like money, time is not infinite.
2. He is a rock: This is symbolic because it signifies that he is strong and dependable.



Definition: The study of the patterns of formation of sentences and phrases from words. (Noun)

2) Syntax is the set of rules in a language. It dictates how words from different parts of speech are put together in order to convey a complete thought. (Noun) In English, basic sentence structure is Subj. - Verb - Object, and syntactic processes allow for different moods or portrayed tones.


1. People who text on their phone while watching a movie are very annoying.

2. Instead of saying, "I cannot go out," one could poetically say, "Go out I cannot." This allows for different emphasis on the word, "cannot," stressing the inability to go out.



Theme: a main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work that may be stated directly or indirectly

sentence: even culture, symbols-metamorphosis, this transcendent theme in literature around the world.


1) love and friendship are reoccurring themes in literature. (Romeo and Juliette by William Shakespeare, Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen)

2) crime and mystery are utilized in detective novels. such narratives may also include "sub-themes" such as: "crimes cannot be hidden" or "evil is always punished". (Sherlock Holmes by Arthur Conan Doyle, Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown)




Definition: Tone (noun) is the general character or attitude of a place, piece of writing, situation, etc.

Sentence: His tone and facial expressions already told me what happened.

2 examples:
Father: “We are going on a vacation."
Son: “That’s great!!!”
- The tone of son’s response is very cheerful.

Father: “We can’t go on vacation this summer."
Son: “Ok. Great! That’s what I expected.”
– The son’s tone is sarcastic in the given response.



.An understatement is a figure of speech by writers or speakers to intentionally make a situation seem less important than it really is.
2. To say there are a few errors in an kindergartners writing is an understatement
3.“It is a bit cold today,” when the temperature is 5 degrees below freezing.
"The desert is sometimes dry and sandy" - While describing the driest desert in the world.



Act of writing or speaking effectively
Used for persuasion
Speakers often have great rhetoric in order to lend themselves more credibility.

How did this idiot get elected? – A rhetorical question to convince others that the “idiot” does not deserve to be elected.
Here comes the Helen of our school. – An allusion to “Helen of Troy” to emphasize the beauty of a girl.